THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY FOR PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

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CIRP ANNALS 2014

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 STC A 

Remote robotic assembly guided by 3D models linking to a real robot
Abdullah Mohammed, Lihui Wang (2), Mauro Onori   
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.1
Keywords: Robot, 3D-image processing, Assembly
Abstract : This paper presents a 3D model-driven remote robotic assembly system. It constructs 3D models at runtime to represent unknown geometries at the robot side, where a sequence of images from a calibrated camera in different poses is used. Guided by the 3D models over the Internet, a remote operator can manipulate a real robot instantly for remote assembly operations. Experimental results show that the system is feasible to meet industrial assembly requirements with an acceptable level of modelling quality and relatively short processing time. The system also enables programming-free robotic assembly where the real robot follows the human's assembly operations instantly.
Integrated cut and place module for high productive manufacturing of lithium-ion cells
Manuel Baumeister, Jürgen Fleischer (1)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.5
Keywords: Cutting, Handling, Cell stacking
Abstract : A main reason for the high costs of lithium-ion cells is the complexity of the assembly process. Especially, creating the cell stack is an inefficient process due to an immature handling and aligning of the limp electrodes and separators. This paper focuses therefore on the methodical development of a functionally integrated assembly module that combines cutting and handling of electrode sheets to increase stacking accuracy, process reliability and productivity. Based on an analysis of requirements and functions, a technical solution has been identified and will be illustrated. At the end, the realized module is described and its performance is proven by experimental validation.
Process and performance optimization by selective assembly of battery electrodes
Jan Schmitt, Annika Raatz, Franz Dietrich, Klaus Dröder, Jürgen Hesselbach (2)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.9
Keywords: Handling, Assembly, Manufacturing process
Abstract : The increasing demand for electric vehicles and thus lithium-ion batteries results in a multitude of challenges in production technology. The reproducibility and performance of large scale batteries for automotive applications are very high. At the same time the production processes are complex and involve many uncertainties. Two essential process steps are the electrode coating and electrode package assembly. The mass loading of anodes and cathodes are determined by the coating process, where deviations can be caused by different reasons. The selective assembly of the electrodes is a reasonable way to balance the production variances. The contribution shows extended algorithms and their benefits and drawbacks of matching electrodes in order to improve the subsequent electrode packaging process. Here, the aim is to reach higher cell capacities and optimized performance values by "optimally" balanced electrodes regarding the mass loading ratio, which is also related to the specific material capacity.
Intuitive Dual arm robot programming for assembly operations
Sotiris Makris (2), Panagiota Tsarouchi, Dragoljub Surdilovic, Jörg Krüger (2)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.13
Keywords: Programming, Assembly, Dual arm robot
Abstract : This study has to do with a method for the intuitive programming of dual arm robots. A task oriented programming procedure is described for this reason, including the proposed dual arm robotics library and the human language. The robotics library aspires after human like capabilities and implements bi-manual operations. This intuitive programming framework is based on a service oriented architecture and is developed in ROS. The user can easily interact with a dual arm robot platform through depth sensors, noise cancelling microphones and GUIs. The methods have been implemented in a dual arm robot platform for an assembly case from the automotive industry.
Multi-robot spot-welding cells: an integrated approach to cell design and motion planning
Stefania Pellegrinelli, Nicola Pedrocchi, Lorenzo Molinari Tosatti, Anath Fischer (1), Tullio Tolio (1)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.17
Keywords: Design method, Computer Automated Process Planning, Multi-robot systems
Abstract : The necessity to manage several vehicle models on the same robotized assembly cell has made the cell design and the robot off-line motion planning two fundamental activities. Industrial practice and state-of-the-art methods focus on the technical issues of each activity, but no integrated approach has been yet proposed, resulting in a lack of optimality for the final cell configuration. The paper introduces a formalization of the whole process and proposes a heuristic multi-stage method for the identification of the optimal combination of cell design choices and motion planning. The proposed architecture is depicted through a real case for welding application.
Dealing with Uncertainty in Disassembly Line Design
M. Lounes Bentaha, Olga Battaïa, Alexandre Dolgui, S. Jack Hu (1)   
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.21
Keywords: Disassembly, Uncertainty, Manufacturing system
Abstract : A disassembly process is usually characterized by a high level of uncertainty due to the quality of End-of-Life products. This paper presents an efficient approach for designing disassembly lines with the objective to maximize the line profit. Task times are assumed to be random variables with known probability distributions. An AND/OR graph is used to model the precedence relationships among tasks and subassemblies and the disassembly alternatives. A Monte Carlo sampling based exact solution method is developed to deal with uncertainties. Results of experiments on problem instances are presented.
Predicting the total environmental impact of product technologies
Seung-Jin Kim, Sami Kara (1)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.25
Keywords: Eco-design methodology, Environmental Impact, Product technology
Abstract : Many eco design tools and product assessment methods have been developed to improve the environmental performance of products during design stage. Despite the efforts made at the product level, environmental impact in our society is increasing due to environmental impact associated with increased product volume. This article presents a new methodology for product life cycle design assessment to predict the total impact caused in the society by forecasting the market growth of emerging product technologies. A number of products were used to prove the validity of the proposed model and demonstrate the usefulness of the methodology.
Decreasing operational cost of high performance oilfield services by lifecycle driven trade-offs in development
Christian Marten (3), Matthias M. Gatzen   / Leo Alting (1)
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.29
Keywords: Cost, Lifecycle, Design method
Abstract : Oilfield service providers are faced with increasing service reliability, reducing operational cost, and the need for rapidly delivering innovative technology. These factors are predominantly influenced in the conceptual design stage. To enable better trade-off decisions a holistic, bottom-up, lifecycle cost model has been developed. The novelty is the early involvement of all stakeholders, i.e., developers, producers and customers, with heavy focus on the operational cost, ultimately meeting the needs of an integrated service provider's customers. Existing business, product, and operational data, as well as expert knowledge, are fed into the model to forecast lifecycle cost throughout development. In addition to the model description, a case study is presented.
Automated In-Service Damage Identification
Jorn Mehnen, Lawrence Tinsley , Rajkumar Roy (1)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.33
Keywords: Damage, Maintenance, Inspection
Abstract : Service damage for mechanical components includes surface delamination, impact damage, crack, wear and corrosion. Automated service damage identification for better analysis of a component remaining life in order to reduce the service cost is increasingly necessary for industrial product-service systems, e.g. power-by-hour contracts. This paper presents a novel approach to apply active thermography and image processing techniques for damage identification and measurement. The study presents experimental results to assess the shape, size and depth of sub-surface damage features on test and real life components. Industrial requirements for the non-destructive inspection for a class of aerospace components are also presented.
Energy-Conscious Manufacturing Scheduling Under Time-of-Use Electricity Tariffs
Hao Zhang, Fu Zhao, Kan Fang, John W. Sutherland (1)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.37
Keywords: Manufacturing system, Scheduling, CO2 emission
Abstract : A time-indexed integer programming formulation is developed and used to identify manufacturing schedules that minimize electricity cost and the carbon footprint under time-of-use tariffs without compromising production throughput. The approach is demonstrated using a flow shop with 8 process steps operating on a typical summer day. Results suggest that shifting electricity usage from on-peak hours to mid-peak hours or off-peak hours, while reducing electricity cost may increase CO2 emissions in regions where the grid base load is met with electricity from coal-fired power plants. The trade-off between minimizing electricity cost and reducing CO2 emissions is shown via a Pareto frontier.
Long Term Impacts of International Outsourcing of Manufacturing on Sustainability
Seyed Hamed MoosaviRad, Sami Kara (1), Michael Zwicky Hauschild (1)   
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.41
Keywords: Manufacturing, Sustainable development, International outsourcing
Abstract : International outsourcing seems to be a cost efficient way of production. However, there are serious concerns about its long term impacts on the environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper aims to quantify these impacts by using input output analysis, linear programming and system dynamics in a case study including European electrical industry (outsourcer), Chinese electrical industry (outsourcee) and their main suppliers. Results depict the differences related to the total CO2 emissions, the number of employees and the gross value added of these two regions between a 10% international outsourcing scenario and the baseline scenario due to their differences in production technologies.
Comparative impact assessment for flax fibre versus conventional glass fibre reinforced composites: Are bio-based reinforcement materials the way to go?
Joost R. Duflou (1), Deng Yelin, Karel Van Acker, Wim Dewulf (2)  
STC A,  63/1/2014,  P.45
Keywords: Lifecycle, Analysis, Bio-composite
Abstract : In many applications the use of composite materials can offer significant weight reduction opportunities, which can have a positive influence on the life cycle impact of a component or system primarily through energy saving effects in the use phase. The impact associated with the production and end-of-life (EOL) phases, however, forms a possible counter indication for systematic replacement of conventional structures by composite solutions. Bio-composites are considered a promising strategy to limit production and EOL impact. In this paper a comparative LCA study is presented for flax fibre reinforced composites based on PP on the one hand, and functionally equivalent glass fibre reinforced PP composites on the other. The analysis results and conclusions derived from a comparative attributional LCA study are summarized in this paper.

 STC C 

Generation of discontinuous microstructures by Diamond Micro Chiseling
Ekkard Brinksmeier (1), Lars Schönemann  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.49
Keywords: Machinability, Micro structure, Chiseling
Abstract : Diamond Micro Chiseling (DMC) is a new machining process to generate discontinuous microstructures, such as miniaturized cube corner retroreflectors or V-shaped grooves with defined endings. After a brief introduction to the process itself, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of factors that determine the achievable size and performance of such microstructures. The capability for generating discontinuous microstructures is assessed theoretically by considering the process kinematics and the diamond tool design by geometrical calculations. Thereafter, an experimental evaluation of the process is presented by showing measured data for cutting forces, achievable shape accuracy and surface finish for different structure sizes.
Workpiece surface integrity when slot milling γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy
Richard Hood, David K. Aspinwall (1), Sein Leung Soo (2), Andrew L. Mantle (3), Donka Novovic  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.53
Keywords: Titanium, Surface integrity, Slot milling
Abstract : Slot milling is presented as a potential manufacturing route for aerospace component feature production when machining γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb+0.8vol%TiB2XD using 2mm diameter AlTiN coated WC ball nose end milling cutters. When operating with flood cutting fluid at v = 88m/min, f = 0.05 mm/tooth, d = 0.2 mm, maximum flank wear was ~65 µm after 25 minutes. SEM micrographs of slot surfaces show re-deposited/adhered and smeared workpiece material to a length of ~50 µm. Brittle fracture of the slot edges was restricted to < 10 µm with sporadic top burr formation observed up to ~20 µm. Cross sectional micrographs of the slot sidewalls showed bending of the lamellae limited to within 5 µm.
An evaluative approach to correlate machinability, microstructures, and material properties of gamma titanium aluminides
Luca Settineri (1), Paolo C. Priarone, Martin Arft, Dieter Lung, Todor Stoyanov   
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.57
Keywords: Cutting, Machinability, Gamma titanium aluminide
Abstract : Several generations of gamma titanium aluminides have been developed over time, and they are nowadays commercially available. The differences in chemical composition, as well as the thermal treatments, greatly influence the properties of the alloys. This implies considerable effects on the production process performances. Benchmark trials were performed on three γ-TiAl alloys: Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, Ti-43.5Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B, and Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn+0.8 vol.% TiB2 XD, focusing on machinability and material characterization. The extremely dissimilar results obtained when turning and milling can be traced back to the different microstructures, as well as to the alloying elements, factors both affecting the mechanical and thermal material properties.
Surface integrity of nickel-based alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by abusive drilling.
Rachid M'Saoubi (1), Dragos Axinte (1), Christopher Herbert, Mark Hardy, Paul Salmon  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.61
Keywords: Surface integrity, Drilling, Ni alloy
Abstract : Surface integrity of nickel-based superalloys after machining operations has become a topic of major interest in the aerospace sector. In the present work, the characteristics of nickel-based alloys (Alloy 718, Waspaloy, Alloy 720Li and RR1000 ) subjected to abusive drilling conditions have been investigated using experimental methods such as FEG-SEM, EBSD, XRD, TEM and nano-indentation. The results indicated the presence of nano-sized grains typical of severe plastic deformation in the machined surface while the presence of plastic slip bands was observed in the sub-surface layers. Correlations between the thermo-mechanical properties of the nickel-based alloys and the severe plastic deformation features of the machined surfaces are presented.
Characterization of deformation induced surface hardening during cryogenic turning of AISI 347
Jan C. Aurich (1), Patrick Mayer, Benjamin Kirsch, Dietmar Eifler, Marek Smaga, Robert Skorupski  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.65
Keywords: Cryogenic machining, Turning, Surface hardening
Abstract : The use of cryogenic cooling in material removal processes has been reported by several researchers. The objectives were enhanced tool life and an expanded range of machinable materials. In this paper, a novel application of cryogenic cooling is presented: its use to achieve direct surface hardening of metastable austenitic steels during cutting. Metastable austenite can transform into martensite due to plastic deformation if a sufficiently low temperature is maintained. In order to use this effect during cutting, cryogenic conditions must be maintained at all times. With this approach, cutting and hardening can be combined in one process.
Finite Element Modeling of Microstructural Changes in Dry and Cryogenic Cutting of Ti6Al4V Alloy
Giovanna Rotella, Domenico Umbrello (2)   
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.69
Keywords: Cutting, Finite element method, Surface integrity
Abstract : This paper presents a customized FE model for describing the microstructural changes during dry and cryogenic cutting of Ti6Al4V. It addresses the importance to modify the material behavior taking into account the microstructural changes and the cooling/lubrication effects during the cutting process. With this aim, a user subroutine is implemented in the FE code to describe the surface and subsurface modifications taking place during the cutting process and to implement them in order to properly modify the material flow stress. Thus, the material flow stress is continuously updated during the simulation according to the new microstructure characteristics. The proposed FE model is calibrated and validated by comparison with experimental results.
Modeling of drilling assisted by cryogenic cooling for higher efficiency
Martin Dix, Rafael Wertheim (1), Gerhard Schmidt, Carsten Hochmuth  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.73
Keywords: Drilling, Energy efficiency, Cryogenic machining
Abstract : The energy consumption of machining operations is significantly influenced by the cooling strategy. In cases of high-performance drilling, high thermal stress on the tool makes adequate cooling necessary. Only cryogenic machining provides the option of lubricant-free processing, resulting in low tool wear, even at high removal rates, due to significant reductions in tool temperatures. Compared to actual tests, verified finite-element process models showed that suitable tool geometry, especially in terms of the positions of the cooling channels, is fundamental for efficient cryogenic drilling. The process model developed is based on a new combination of different approaches for modeling a cryogenically cooled tool.
Flow Visualization and Characterization for Optimized MQL Machining of Composites
Youssef Iskandar, Amit Tendolkar, Helmi Attia (1), Patrick Hendrick, Ahmed Damir, Christophe Diakodimitris  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.77
Keywords: Cutting, Composite, Minimum Quantity Lubrication
Abstract : Limited information is available on the effect of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) parameters (oil flow rate OFR, air flow rate AFR, nozzle orientation and distance from the cutting zone) on flow characteristics. 'Particle Image Velocimetry' and 'Phase Doppler Anemometry' flow visualization methods were used to define the optimal MQL jet for better penetration and cooling/lubrication; coherent, small magnitude/number of vorticities, and small droplets of high velocity. Effect of flow characteristics on cutting forces, temperature, tool wear and geometric errors was examined in CFRP milling. Optimum AFR, OFR and nozzle distance from the cutting zone were established and compared to flood, pressurized air, and dry machining.
A Mechanistic Approach to Investigate Drilling of UD-CFRP Laminates with PCD Drills
Yigit Karpat, Onur Bahtiyar, Burak Deger, Bilgin Kaftanoglu (1)   
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.81
Keywords: Machining, Drilling, Fiber reinforced plastic
Abstract : Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) possess desirable material properties that satisfy the aerospace industry's high strength to weight ratio objective. Therefore, CFRPs are commonly used in structural parts, either alone or together with aluminum and titanium alloys. Drilling of CFRPs has been studied extensively in the literature in recent years, with special emphasis on process parameters and delamination. This study identifies mechanical properties of uni-directional CFRPs through drilling tests. Drilling of uni-directional CFRP plates with and without pilot holes has been performed and cutting and edge force coefficients are identified. A polycrystalline diamond (PCD) drill was used in tests since this type of drill is commonly used in practice. Finally, validation tests on multi directional CFRP laminates have been performed and good results have been obtained.
Reducing Drilling-induced Delamination in Composite Tube by Magnetic Colloid Back-up
Hong Hocheng (2), C.C. Tsao, C.S. Liu, H.A. Chen  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.85
Keywords: Drilling, Delamination, Magnetic back-up
Abstract : Drilling is an indispensible machining process for building a load-carrying structure of composite materials. Delamination defect is often produced at the exit of drilling, which threatens the service safety of the structure. There are back-up methods to reduce delamination when drilling the open flat- plate composite structure, but none for drilling into the curved-surface or hollow-shape structures. This study describes an innovative method using electromagnet and the deformable inexpensive colloid mixed with iron powder to produce magnetic back-up force at drilling exit to suppress delamination in industrial tube parts. The delamination extent can be reduced by 60-80%. The optimal volume ratio of powder-to-colloid is found 1:3.
High-quality machining of CFRP with high helix end mill
Akira Hosokawa, Naoya Hirose, Takashi Ueda (1), Tatsuaki Furumoto  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.89
Keywords: Cutting tool, Milling, CFRP
Abstract : Side milling tests of CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) without coolant are carried out by DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon)-coated carbide end mills. Four types of DLC-coated end mills are chosen: UBMS (UnBalanced Magnetron Sputtered) and AIP (Arc Ion Plated) coatings having different helix angles, respectively. The surface integrity is evaluated in terms of 3D profiles of the machined surface, generation of fluffing, delamination and pull-out of the carbon fiber. The cutting force and tool wear with respect to the fiber orientation are also examined. The inclination milling with high helix angle end mill is proposed in which the end mill is tilted in such a way that the resultant cutting force acts parallel to the work surface. This unique approach enables to reduce tool wear and to improve surface integrity of machined surface of CFRP.
Brittleness and fatigue effect of mono- and multi-layer PVD films on the cutting performance of coated cemented carbide inserts
Georgios Skordaris (2), Konstantinos-Dionysios Bouzakis (1), Paschalis Charalampous, Emmanouil Bouzakis, Rodoula Paraskevopoulou, Oliver Lemmer, Stephan Bolz  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.93
Keywords: PVD-coating, Wear, Brittleness
Abstract : The effect of brittleness and fatigue of mono- and multi-layer PVD films on coated tools cutting performance is introduced. Cemented carbide inserts were coated to the same overall film thickness with various numbers of layers. Nanoindentations were conducted to evaluate the hardness of the diverse coating structures. The film brittleness and fatigue were characterized by nano- and macro-impact tests respectively. The coated inserts' wear behaviour was investigated in milling hardened steel. The attained results revealed the coatings' brittleness and fatigue endurance enhancement by increasing the number of film's layers. This increase leads simultaneously to the coated tool life improvement.
In-Process measurement of friction coefficient in orthogonal cutting
Darko Smolenicki, Jens Boos, Fredy Kuster (3), Hans Roelofs, Carl F. Wyen    / R. Züst (1)
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.97
Keywords: Friction, Cutting, Tribometer
Abstract : In order to represent actual cutting process conditions, an in-process tribometer is examined to measure friction during orthogonal turning process at cutting speeds up to 300m/min. The tribometer consists of a spring preloaded tungsten carbide pin with spherical tip mounted behind the cutting edge and rubbing on the freshly generated workpiece surface. The pin preload is set according to feed force. A 3D-force measuring device in the fixation of the pin allows evaluating friction coefficient from tangential and normal forces. Experiments show strongly different results when contacting fresh and oxidized surfaces and decreasing friction coefficient with increasing cutting speed.
Multi-grooved cutting tool to reduce cutting force and temperature during bone machining
Naohiko Sugita (2), Kentaro Ishii, Jianbo Sui, Makoto Terashima  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.101
Keywords: Cutting tool, Temperature, Biomedical material
Abstract : The cutting temperature of a cutting tool are required to be low during bone machining for preventing damage to bone cells. However, conventional tools are practically the same as those used for metal cutting, and many operational limitations have been reported. In this study, a dedicated cutting tool was designed for reducing cutting force and temperature. A short contact between the workpiece and the cutting edge leads to a reduction in the cutting force. Furthermore, a straight-line edge improves surface roughness. The effectiveness was evaluated using bovine bone, and the cutting force was found to be decreased by about 40%.
Efficient and precise cutting of zirconia ceramics using heated cutting tool
Toru Kizaki, Kanako Harada, Mamoru Mitsuishi (1)   
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.105
Keywords: Precision machining, Thermal effects, Ceramic
Abstract : The thermally assisted machining of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal using a cutting tool heated with induction heating was proposed. Although the conventional thermally assisted machining cannot be applied to drilling, the proposed method can be. Heat transfer from the heated cutting tool to the workpiece was simulated analytically, and the result showed that heating of the tool up to 500 °C produced an increase of 150-400 °C in the workpiece temperature. Cutting experiments demonstrated an improvement in machinability.
A study on the development of the laser-assisted milling process and a related constitutive equation for silicon nitride
Dong-Wi Kang, Choon-Man Lee    / D.Y. Yang (1)
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.109
Keywords: Laser, End milling, Ceramic
Abstract : Laser-assisted machining (LAM) has recently been evaluated as an effective process for machining of difficult-to-cut materials, such as ceramics. It is more difficult to reach a sufficient preheating temperature in laser-assisted milling than in turning. A newly developed back-and-forth preheating method is proposed to obtain proper temperature at the laser spot, which is preceding a cutting tool. Experiments were successfully performed using the calculated laser power and feed, as determined by using finite element analyses. In addition, a constitutive equation of the LAM is proposed. The proposed method and constitutive equation can be applied to the laser-assisted milling of ceramics.
Thermal modelling of end milling
Ismail Lazoglu (2), Bircan Bugdayci   
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.113
Keywords: Temperature, Milling, Modelling
Abstract : Determination of the temperatures during machining is one of the most important challenges for accurate milling simulations. Coupled with excessive shearing, plastic deformation and friction in a small region of cutting, the temperatures in milling may have very significant impact on parts and tools such as dimensional errors, residual stresses and tool wear. Temperature exhibits a non-linear complex-modelling problem in milling process. In this article, for the first time, a novel thermal modelling is introduced for fast and accurate prediction of temperatures in end milling processes. A theoretical modelling approach and experimental validations are presented for various cutting conditions.
On the Geometric and Stress Modeling of Taper Ball End Mills
Raja Kountanya, Changsheng Guo (2)  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.117
Keywords: Structural analysis, End milling, Geometric modeling
Abstract : Taper ball end mills (TBEM) are widely used in 5-axis machining of complex parts such as impellers. Structural models are needed for calculating cutter load capacity and deflection and optimizing tool designs. Developing analytical structural models is difficult due to the geometric complexity. This paper establishes a novel 3D parametric model for as-ground TBEMs. Using this parameterized geometric model, the structure is analyzed to calculate bending stress and cutter deflection. The analytical model results were found to be in good agreement with Finite Element simulation results and experimental data from literature.
An innovative experimental study of corner radius effect on cutting forces
Sebastien Campocasso, Gerard Poulachon (2), Jean-Philippe Costes, Stephanie Bissey-Breton (3)    / I.S. Jawahir (1)
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.121
Keywords: Cutting, Force, Tool geometry
Abstract : The cutting forces are often modelled using edge discretisation methodology. In finish turning, due to the smaller corner radii, the use of a local cutting force model identified from orthogonal cutting tests poses a significant challenge. In this paper, the local effect of the corner radius on the forces is investigated using a new experimental configuration: corner cutting tests involving the tool nose. The results are compared with inverse identifications based on cylindrical turning tests and elementary cutting tests on tubes. The results obtained from these methods consistently show the significant influence of the corner radius on the cutting forces.
The effects of tool edge radius on drill deflection and hole misalignment in deep hole gundrilling of Inconel-718
Keng Soon Woon, Akshay Chaudhari, Mustafizur Rahman (1), Stephen Wan, A. Senthil Kumar  
STC C,  63/1/2014,  P.125
Keywords: Deep hole drilling, Cutting edge, Hole straightness
Abstract : Straightness control in gundrilling of deep, thin-walled holes on Inconel-718 is challenging due to insufficiently explored phenomena governed by the tool edge radius effects. Such effects are activated by conservative drilling conditions for Inconel-718, which transforms the chip formation mode to a thrust-dominated mechanism. Critical changes in force generation are thus resulted, which affect the characteristics of drill deflection and thin wall deformation. In consequence, the drill's self-piloting capability deteriorates - leading to uncontrollable deflection and hole misalignment. A mechanistic model uniting the underlying force, drill deflection, wall deformation and process kinematics is proposed and substantiated, as well.

 STC Dn 

Incorporating Tolerances of Customers' Requirements for Customized Products
Yue Wang, Mitchell Tseng (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.129
Keywords: Design, Customization, Tolerance
Abstract : Tolerancing conventionally deals with the variation of manufacturing processes to meet the requirements of product quality. With the development in product customization, it has been generally accepted that customers' requirements also have acceptable tolerance range. This flexibility provides an opportunity to better match customer requirements with richer product offerings through customization. A probabilistic model is presented in this paper to incorporate the tolerance of functional requirements into customized product design. By leveraging on the requirements tolerance, customers are more likely to get their desired products. Customer requirements tolerance can thus open up a new dimension for product customization.
Network based requirement specification
Eric Lutters (2), Winnie Dankers, Ellen Oude Luttikhuis, Jos de Lange   
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.133
Keywords: Design optimisation, Network, Requirement specification
Abstract : Requirement specifications often resemble static design briefs. Whereas such unequivocal references are essential, the dynamics of product development require more insight, nuancing, flexibility and evolvement. This encompasses relative importance, context and provenance of the requirements related to the different stakeholders involved. In developing responsive requirement specifications, the so-called actor network is employed. Such a network maps the relevant stakeholders over the development life cycle, thus expressing the set of requirements as a whole, as well as the evolving coherence between them. This publication demonstrates the structure and purpose of network based requirements and the added value for product developers.
From Solid Modelling to Skin Model Shapes: Shifting paradigms in Computer-Aided Tolerancing
Nabil Anwer, Benjamin Schleich, Luc Mathieu (1), Sandro Wartzack   
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.137
Keywords: Product development, Tolerancing, Skin Model
Abstract : Product design requires the consideration of geometric models and representations that reflect shape deviations and support tolerance management issues. Computer Aided Tolerancing (CAT) systems have been developed as simulation tools for modelling the effects of tolerances on digital product simulation. However, geometric variations cannot be addressed efficiently with regard to form deviations. This paper investigates the concepts of Skin Model Shapes, which provide a finite describability and the digital representation of the Skin Model concept, and their unified discrete geometry representation. New contributions to tolerance representation and analysis are presented. Applications and perspectives for CAT systems are highlighted as well.
Design optimization using Statistical Confidence Boundaries of Response Surfaces: Application to Robust Design of a Biomedical Implant
Laetitia Rossi, Jean-Marc Linares (2), Julien Chaves-Jacob, Jean Mailhe, Jean-Michel Sprauel  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.141
Keywords: Design optimization, Uncertainty, Biomedical
Abstract : This paper deals with the use of Statistical Confidence Boundaries (SCB) of response surfaces in robust design optimization. An empirical model is therefore selected to describe a real design constraint function. This constraint is thus approximated by a second order polynomial expansion which is fitted to numerical simulations that use a Finite Element Method (FEM). A technique is also proposed to analyze the effects of the uncertainties of the inputs of the simulations. This approach is employed to optimize the design of a biomedical wrist implant. A real optimized implant is then manufactured and tested to validate the numerical model.
Synthesis of verification models in multi-disciplinary design of complex engineered systems
Shinsuke Kondoh (2), Akira Tezuka  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.145
Keywords: Design, Model, Metamodel
Abstract : In designing complex engineered systems, various experiments and simulations are needed for the verification of design hypotheses. Because the conducted verification is multidisciplinary, synthesis of these verification results should be based on a neutral model regarding the domains and disciplines. This paper introduces a metamodel, to which the roles and designers' intentions (i.e., design situation) of various verification models are referred, and uses it for analyzing the synthesis process. The design of a paper-handling device is used for an analysis example, which clarifies advantages and drawbacks in modeling the synthesis process with such a metamodel.
Capturing, Classification and Concept Generation for Automated Maintenance Tasks
Michael Farnsworth, Tetsuo Tomiyama (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.149
Keywords: Maintenance, Automation, Robot
Abstract : Maintenance is an efficient and cost effective way to keep the function of the product available during the product lifecycle. Automating maintenance may drive down costs and improve performance time; however capturing the necessary information required to perform certain maintenance tasks and later building automated platforms to undertake them is very difficult. This paper looks at the creation of a novel methodology tasked with firstly the capture and classification of maintenance tasks and finally conceptual design of platforms for automating maintenance.
Part Cost Estimation at Early Design Phase
Gila Molcho (2), Asher Cristal, Moshe Shpitalni (1)   
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.153
Keywords: Cost evaluation, Design, Predictive model
Abstract : Although 70% of part cost is determined during the early design stage, designers rarely accurately estimate the costs of their designs. Based on extensive literature review, in-depth industrial survey and close collaboration with multiple manufacturers, forty factors were identified as governing part cost and ranked according to cost impact. Based upon parameter ranking and availability at the early stages of design, a cost estimator for designers is proposed. As the design progresses and more parameters become available, a more accurate cost model is derived and proposed to manufacturers. Results are analysed and compared to actual manufacturing costing demonstrating good fit.
Adapting CAD models of complex engineering objects to measured point cloud data
Gabor Erdos, Takahiro Nakano (3), Jozsef Vancza (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.157
Keywords: Computer aided design (CAD), Object recognition, Point cloud
Abstract : Construction, maintenance and retrofitting of complex engineering objects like factories or plants calls for matching their model and actual state that are inevitably different. The paper presents a generic method for tailoring the computer aided design (CAD) model of such objects to their state given in terms of measured 3D, high resolution point clouds. The workflow includes efficient storage of massive measurement data, segmentation of a triangulated mesh-based CAD model into features, matching and adapting the features to the data. The method is demonstrated in a real-world setting, using the CAD model and point cloud data of an industrial plant.
Managing the Variability of Biomechanical Characteristics before the Preliminary Design Stage of a Medical Device
M. Mesnard, A. Ramos, Nicolas Perry (2)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.161
Keywords: Design method, Biomedical, Modular design
Abstract : The very high level of requirements for certification procedures often limit research and development departments to innovate using increments and iterations during the design process for medical devices (MD). Instead of this semi-empirical approach, a structured procedure, a breakthrough innovation should be used when designing an articular MD (prosthesis, implant). The search for concepts can be based on functional analysis and producing behavioral models of the joint in its natural state and/or equipped with the prosthesis. This paper shows how anatomical variables can be managed and integrated using a modular design approach.
New methodology to reduce the transmission error of the spiral bevel gears.
Julien Astoul, Emmanuel Mermoz (3), Marc Sartor, Jean Marc Linares (2), Alain Bernard (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.165
Keywords: Optimization, Finite element method, Transmission error
Abstract : New methods and tools have been developed that last years to improve the understanding of gear meshing. Mechanical industries attach growing attention to the dynamic behaviour of mechanical transmissions, including vibration and noise that result. The transmission error of the gear, which measures the intensity of one of the main causes of dynamic phenomena, can be considered as a relevant indicator of gear performance. This paper presents a new design method of spiral bevel gears, the objective of this method being to reduce their quasi-static transmission error. The proposed approach is based on an optimization process including loaded meshing simulations. The simulation model has been evaluated using a helicopter tail gearbox as bench test. Measurement results are given, showing a good correlation with predictions.
A protocol to perform usage oriented ecodesign
Emmanuelle Cor, Lucie Domingo, Daniel Brissaud (1), Peggy Zwolinski  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.169
Keywords: Design, Environment, Usage
Abstract : Ecodesign strategies only based on technology efficiency have reached a steady state in improving product environmental impacts in use. New solutions should be investigated in order to consider the contribution of the users themselves to the actual environmental impacts of the product in use. This paper presents a protocol to perform usage oriented eco-design. Combining in depth analysis of tasks realization with a more holistic model of the entire use phase, this protocol can support the design activities. An application to an espresso coffee maker illustrates the protocol implementation.
An ontology for unifying behavior-change literature
Jayesh Srivastava, L.H. Shu (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.173
Keywords: Human aspect, Sustainable development, Behavior change
Abstract : Changing the behavior of human operators is an underutilized approach to reduce the resource consumption of manufacturing. We created an ontology to make more accessible the existing work on behavior change, and categorized current knowledge under the headings: Problem Type, Barriers, Principles, Strategies, Mechanisms, Applications and Authors. Constructed using a web ontology language, the structure allows free navigation from any of the above category headings, and enables design practitioners better access to the strategies most relevant to their problem. We provide an example of how researchers can identify useful strategies for a specific problem in manufacturing.
Alternation of Analysis and Synthesis for Concept Generation
Ang Liu, Stephen C.Y. Lu (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.177
Keywords: Synthesis, Analysis, Concept generation
Abstract : Concept generation involves performing both analysis and synthesis activities interchangeably. In current practice, these two activities are often loosely-defined and randomly-performed. This paper presents a new method, called the Analysis Synthesis Alternation (ASA) approach, which treats concept generation as a proposition-making process and adapts the formal logic definitions of analytic and synthetic propositions to generate new concepts via two stages: ideation and validation. Both stages involve systemic alternations between analytic and synthetic propositions, but the alterations are performed in reverse reasoning directions. Experiment shows that ASA outperforms traditional brainstorming technique in both novelty and functionality.
Design and simulation of assembly systems with mobile robots
George Michalos, Costas Kaltsoukalas, Panagiotis Aivaliotis, Platon Sipsas, Andreas Sardelis, George Chryssolouris (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.181
Keywords: Design method, Assembly, Robot
Abstract : This paper proposes an approach to the design and operation of assembly systems that include mobile robots. It is based on a semantic model representing the robot/resource skills along with the operations that a resource has to execute. The method is implemented in a system capable of generating the assignment of operations to the proper robotic resources. Collision free paths can be generated for the assembly system robots with the help of simulation. The method is presented in a case study from the automotive industry
Integrated design of a 4-DOF high-speed pick-and-place parallel robot
Yuhang Li, Yue Ma, Songtao Liu, Zhenjun Luo, Jiangping Mei, Tian Huang (1), Derek G. Chetwynd  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.185
Keywords: Parallel kinematics, Conceptual design, Computer aided design (CAD)
Abstract : This paper draws on robotic mechanisms theory and elastic dynamics to propose a new methodology for the integrated design of a 4-DOF SCARA pick-and-place parallel robot. The design process, which is readily applied to other designs, is implemented by four interactive steps: (1) conceptual design and mechanical realization of the light-weight yet rigid articulated travelling plate; (2) dimensional synthesis by minimizing the maximum driving toque of a single actuated joint; (3) structural parameter design for achieving good elastic dynamic behaviours; and (4) motor sizing necessary to generate the specified cycle time. Based upon the proposed process a virtual prototype is designed for achieving a cycle time for up to 150 picks/min.
Modular Design for Increasing Assembly Automation
Konstantinos Salonitis   / J. Corbett (1)
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.189
Keywords: Modular design, Automation, Product development
Abstract : Modular design can address the need for a high number of product variants and further allow a higher degree of automation in the assembly line. A framework is developed for the simultaneous modular product design and the design of automated manufacturing system. Product designs are optimized for automation using design structure matrix and modular function deployment. Alternative production systems are designed and accessed based on the analysis of assembly steps hierarchically. The implementation of the framework on the design of a production system for furniture assembly, able to handle multiple variants with a large number of components, is demonstrated.
Classification of design parameters with system modeling andsimulation techniques
Hitoshi Komoto, Keijiro Masui    / F. Kimura (1)
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.193
Keywords: System architecture, Computer-aided design, System simulation
Abstract : System modeling and simulation techniques are crucial in model-based development of complex engineered systems. However, use of these techniques in system architecting, where the desired architecture is widely explored to meet given function requirements, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, such tools are used as computational supports for system architecting. The methodology enables systematic search and visualization of local design parameters and system architecture across various engineering domains. The design parameters are classified according to their engineering domains, topological relations, and numerical similarities. The methodology is applied to the system architecting of an electric vehicle.
Kinematical product specifications in engineering design
Mikael Hedlind, Torsten Kjellberg (1)  
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.197
Keywords: Kinematic, Modelling, Computer aided design (CAD)
Abstract : The basics of kinematic modelling in CAD applications are to define motion constraints for components relative to other components for the purpose of motion studies. The main concepts are links and joints with information about degree of freedom, actuation and motion range which combined build the topology and geometry to characterise a mechanism. For translating design intent into motion requirements more accurate modelling of the mechanism is needed, including tolerances on error motion in addition to tolerances on functional surfaces. This paper identifies existing limitations and new possibilities for model based kinematical product specification and verification.
Method to explore technology innovation fully exploiting in-house capabilities
Wessel W. Wits, Juan M. Jauregui Becker   / Fred J.A.M. van Houten (1)
STC Dn,  63/1/2014,  P.201
Keywords: Design method, Conceptual design, Technology innovation
Abstract : This paper proposes a design method to seek potential product innovation fully exploiting in-house capabilities. The method triggers scientists, designers and engineers in discovering both new instantiations of physical principles and new physical phenomena, that may appear by modifying the embodiment of existing technologies. The embodiment modifications are constrained by the in-house manufacturing techniques to seek innovative solutions without the burden of heavy capital investments. The newly discovered principles and phenomena are tested for possible affordances leading to new product functions. The design method is applied in an industrial technology exploration and led to the discovery of two new technologies.

 STC E 

Analysis and performance of slotted tools in electrical discharge drilling
Ramy Nastasi, Philip Koshy (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.205
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Tool geometry, Flushing
Abstract : Accumulation of machining debris due to inadequate gap flushing severely limits the material removal rate and impairs the quality of the machined surface in electrical discharge machining. This is particularly pronounced in electrical discharge drilling of holes with a high aspect-ratio, wherein conventional flushing techniques essentially cease to be effective. To this end, this paper proposes the application of novel tool electrodes comprising geometric features specifically designed to promote tool rotation-induced debris egress. The corresponding flow fields are modelled numerically to optimize said designs. Relative to conventional rotating cylindrical tools, removal rate enhancements on the order of 300% are demonstrated.
Micro Electrical Discharge Machining of Polycrystalline Diamond Using Rotary Cupronickel Electrode
Jiwang Yan, Kazunori Watanabe, Tojiro Aoyama (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.209
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining, Diamond, Microstructure
Abstract : Cupronickel was used as the electrode material to fabricate microstructures on polycrystalline diamond by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The electrodes were shaped into tiny rotary wheels driven by the flow of EDM fluid. Results showed that material removal rate was improved by a factor of five compared to conventional electrode materials. Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that graphitization of diamond and diffusion-based chemical reactions between nickel and diamond dominated the EDM process. Effects of electrode rotation rate and discharge energy on the EDM characteristics were clarified. High form accuracy (~0.5 micron/1mm) and low surface roughness (~0.1 micron Ra) were obtained.
Clarification of EDM Gap Phenomena Using Transparent Electrodes
Tomoo Kitamura, Masanori Kunieda (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.213
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Temperature, Transparent electrode
Abstract : This paper describes the heat source diameter of single pulse discharge in electrical discharge machining. To observe the discharge plasma, SiC and Ga2O3 single crystals were used as the electrode material since they are optically transparent and electrically conductive. It was found that plasma diameter expands within a few microseconds after dielectric breakdown and the plasma diameter is much larger than the discharge crater. From the measured diameter of the crater, the heat source diameter was obtained by solving the inverse problem of heat conduction analysis, and it was found that the heat source diameter is smaller than the plasma diameter but larger than the crater diameter.
Ultrasonic Machining of Biomass using Biodegradable Slurry
Dheeraj Ahluwalia, Michael J. Borrelli, Kaleb Smithson, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar (1), Ajay P. Malshe (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.217
Keywords: Ultrasonic, Machining, Biomanufacturing
Abstract : Thrombi, e.g. blood clots, in circulatory system pose acute health risk, globally. This research investigated roles of biodegradable starch slurry in advancing biomass machining efficiency. Hard clots (fibrin-rich) prepared from rabbit blood were exposed in vitro concomitantly to ultrasound (1 MHz) and starch slurry. Starch slurry particles (diameter ~250 nm) yielded a three-fold increase in material removal (sonothrombolysis) efficiency. Mechanistic participation of starch, a non-Newtonian material, at the interface of biomass-ultrasonic radiation is discussed. Overall in subtractive biomanufacturing, the role of biodegradable slurry is critical for enhancing material removal efficiency.
Characteristics on micro-biofabrication by patterning with electrostatically injected droplet
Shinjiro Umezu, Hitoshi Ohmori (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.221
Keywords: Rapid prototyping, Biomedical, Micro structure
Abstract : Micro biofabrication technologies have been developing aiming to fabricate 3D artificial organs, 3D scaffolds, and complex tissue structures. We are now developing a new inkjet bio-printing method via electrostatic phenomenon. The merits of the new method are of high resolution, and of ability to eject highly viscous liquid and media. In this paper, we attempted to apply the proposed method for precision printing cells and biomaterials. Living cells and scaffolds have successfully been printed and the biochemical characteristics have been investigated. A 3D cell structure which had a cavity to create blood vessels has also successfully fabricated by this method.
Droplet detachment regimes in annular laser beam droplet generation from a metal wire
Alexander Kuznetsov, Andrej Jeromen, Edvard Govekar (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.225
Keywords: Laser beam machining, Manufacturing, Metal droplet
Abstract : Pendant droplet detachment regimes in the novel annular laser beam droplet generation from a metal wire are analyzed. In drop-on-demand generation, droplet detachment can be achieved via Rayleigh-Plateau instability based molten wire column break-up. Detachment dynamics are influenced by the distance between the annular laser beam focus and the pendant droplet neck. In the continuous generation of a droplet sequence, droplet detachment is governed by the laser pulse frequency, resulting in a spontaneous, resonant, or Rayleigh-Plateau instability based detachment regime. In addition to drop-on-demand generation, continuous droplet generation with spontaneous and mass-spring resonant detachment are suitable for metal droplet based engineering applications where accurate droplet diameter and deposition position are required.
Ultrashort pulsed laser drilling and surface structuring of microholes in stainless steels
L. Romoli, C.A.A. Rashed, G. Lovicu, G. Dini (1), F. Tantussi, F. Fuso, M. Fiaschi  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.229
Keywords: Laser micro machining, Micro structure, Stainless steel
Abstract : Microholes for the production of gasoline direct injection nozzles were obtained by ultrashort pulsed laser machining in martensitic stainless steels. The inner surface analysis was carried out by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and revealed the presence of periodic surface microstructures whose formation was studied as a function of process parameters (pulse energy, repetition rate, rotational speed, drilling strategy). Experiments demonstrated that geometrical features of the microstructures can be varied by a proper parameter selection and open the perspective for an optimized process enabling a reduction of coking accumulation during service life and a more effective atomization of the fuel jet.
Laser surface hardening of large cylindrical components utilizing ring spot geometry
Leonardo Orazi, Erica Liverani, Alessandro Ascari, Alessandro Fortunato (3), Luca Tomesani    / M. Santochi (1)
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.233
Keywords: Laser beam machining, Hardening, Process simulation
Abstract : A new process, based on ring spot geometry, is presented for laser surface hardening of large cylindrical components. The proposed technique leads to a very hard, deep and uniform hardened layer along the entire work piece surface without introducing a tempered zone, making the process very attractive compared to conventional induction hardening that exhibits both low energy efficiency and poor flexibility. A complete physical model is presented for the process, together with a study of the influence of process parameters on the final outcome. The results of an extensive validation campaign, carried out on AISI 1040 specimens, are also reported.
Effect of Beam Diameter on Pulsed Laser Polishing of S7 Tool Steel
Frank E. Pfefferkorn, Neil A. Duffie (1), Justin D. Morrow, Qinghua Wang   
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.237
Keywords: Laser, Polishing, Roughness
Abstract : Tool steels such as S7 are often used for molds and dies, an application that requires both an extremely smooth surface and tight geometric tolerances. Pulsed Laser Micro Polishing (PLµP) is a process capable of achieving significant surface smoothing quickly and without removing material. This paper presents the effect of melt pool diameter (laser spot diameter) on surface topography during pulsed laser polishing. How the manipulation of melt pool diameter during three-pass laser polishing can reduce surface roughness is also discussed.
High cycle fatigue properties of Selective Laser Sintered parts in polyamide 12
Brecht Van Hooreweder, Jean-Pierre Kruth (1)  
STC E,  63/1/2014,  P.241
Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Selective laser sintering, Fatigue
Abstract : Selective laser sintered parts in polyamide are increasingly being used in functional applications. The monotonic properties of these parts are well-known and documented. The cyclic material properties, on the other hand, are largely unknown. Therefore, in this paper a systematic analysis is made of fatigue properties and failure mechanisms of selective laser sintered parts subjected to fluctuating loading in tension/compression. Both plain and notched specimens are produced along perpendicular building directions. The fatigue behaviour of these parts is analysed and compared to injection moulded samples. In addition, the influence of the test frequency and the notch manufacturing method is studied.

 STC F 

Spatial Stability Analysis of Emergent Wavy Interfacial Patterns in Magnetic Pulsed Welding
Ali Nassiri, Greg Chini, Brad Kinsey    / Scott Smith (1)
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.245
Keywords: Welding, Modelling, Spatial stability analysis
Abstract : During Magnetic Pulsed Welding, a flier workpiece impacts a stationary workpiece to create a solid state weld. If the velocity of the flier workpiece is sufficient (e.g., >200 m/s), a wavy pattern is observed at the interface between the two workpieces. The pattern has similarities to shear instabilities observed in fluid dynamics. To investigate this behaviour and assess if a connection between the two phenomena exists, shear-flow stability analyses, informed by finite-element simulations, were performed. The results confirm that the wavy pattern can be caused by a shear instability, as hypothesized.
A new incremental in-plane bending of thin sheet metals for micro machine components by using a tiltable punch
Takashi Kuboki, Armad Azrie, Yingjun Jin    / Manabu Kiuchi (1)
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.249
Keywords: Incremental sheet forming, Cold forming, Bending
Abstract : This paper proposes an innovative incremental in-plane bending of thin metal sheets for manufacturing microscopic machine components. The unique feature of the process is that a tiltable punch having a beating face with trapezoidal profile is used. The beating face enables the punch to bend thin metal sheets in-plane manner. Working conditions, including indentation and feeding pitch, can easily and flexibly control the bending radius and even the bending direction. The in-plane bent thin sheet products are expected to be used as springs, conical cylinders, bushes and others components of micro machines such as medical instruments.
Fundamentals of the incremental tube forming process
Christoph Becker, Erman A. Tekkaya (1), Matthias Kleiner (1)  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.253
Keywords: Metal forming, Bending, Tube
Abstract : The manufacture of bent tubes made of high-strength materials requires high bending loads, which lead to large springback and eventually distortion of the cross-section. The incremental tube forming process allows significant reduction of the bending moment. This is achieved by combining the continuous bending process with an incremental tube spinning process. The paper describes an analytical model to predict the bending moment reduction as a function of the superposed spinning process parameters. Experimental results are provided to validate the theoretical results. This model allows the design and optimization of the incremental tube forming process with low springback.
Process Optimization for the Manufacturing of Sheets with Estimated Balance between Product Quality and Energy Consumption
Kazuhiro Ohara, Masashi Tsugeno, Hiroyuki Imanari, Yasuyuki Sakiyama, Kazutoshi Kitagoh, Jun Yanagimoto (1)  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.257
Keywords: Rolling, Sheet metal, Product quality control
Abstract : Reducing energy consumption and emissions are crucial environmental concerns. While industry requires high-quality sheet steel for forming, the production of this steel by the steel industry consumes huge amounts of electric energy and emits considerable CO2. Conventionally, hot rolling process parameters have been determined empirically to achieve the desired mechanical properties, with the quality of the hot-rolled products having priority over energy consumption. We have developed a novel optimization system that evaluates both energy consumption in the sheet manufacturing process and the mechanical properties of the hot-rolled products. This paper describes the optimization of hot rolling strategies based on the estimation of energy consumption and prediction of mechanical properties.
Formation Mechanism of Surface Scale Defects in Hot Rolling Process
Hiroshi Utsunomiya (2), Kenichiro Hara, Ryo Matsumoto, Akira Azushima (1)   
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.261
Keywords: Tribology, Hot deformation, Oxide scale
Abstract : Surface defects caused by oxide scale decreases yield efficiency in hot rolling processes. The oxide scale shows various deformation behaviours: (a) uniform plastic deformation, (b) cracking, (c) indentation to matrix, or (d) fragmentation. The scale behaviour on low carbon steel was observed. Comparison with a thermal analysis gives that the behaviour is governed by the scale temperature in the roll bite. In order to avoid defects, the temperature should be kept higher than the DBTT. Higher rolling temperature is effective to increase ductility, however, also increase scale thickness. The optimum combination of rolling temperature and duration after descaling is derived.
Development of efficient production routes based on strip casting for advanced high strength steels for crash-relevant parts
Markus Daamen, Onur Güvenc, Markus Bambach, G. Hirt (2)  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.265
Keywords: Ultra high strength steel, Casting, Rolling, High manganeseTWIP steel
Abstract : Twin roll strip casting can be an effective alternative to produce high manganese TWIP steel, which provides extraordinary mechanical properties. In the work presented, 1.5-3 mm thin hot strips with up to 30 wt% manganese were produced directly from the melt and further processed to cold strip. An adapted thermo-mechanical treatment, consisting of cold rolling with or without subsequent annealing, enables to adjust different material states, such as recrystallised or strengthened state, and thus to tailor the mechanical properties. As an example for the superior crash behaviour of high manganese TWIP steels, dynamic crash tests were carried out using cold rolled Fe-29Mn-0.3C steel in different material states.
Characterization of electrically-assisted micro-rolling for surface texturing using embedded sensor
Man-Kwan Ng, Zhaoyan Fan, Robert X. Gao (2), Edward F. Smith, Jian Cao (2)   
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.269
Keywords: Rolling, Sensor, Electrically-assisted forming
Abstract : Electrically-assisted micro-rolling (EAµR) takes advantage of localized heating by loading current through the deformation zone to enhance the texturing capability of Ti-6Al-4V and AA3003-H14. The challenge to achieve a desired deformation pattern is the lack of reliable models to capture the often non-uniform mechanical and thermal behaviour. In this paper, pressure distributions are measured by a custom-designed, tool-embedded sensor. Furthermore, the effects of current on texturing are first characterized using a coupled mechanical and thermal model. Comparison between modelling and experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of EAµR on texturing and the importance of multi-physics modelling.
Electrically assisted trimming using the electroplasticity of ultra-high strength metal alloys
Woong Kim, Kyeong-Ho Yeom, Nguyen Trung Thien, Sung-Tae Hong, Byung-Kwon Min, Soo Ik Oh (1), Moon-Jo Kim, Heung Nam Han, Hyun-Woo Lee  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.273
Keywords: High strength steel, Tensile strength, Electroplasticity
Abstract : The electroplastic tensile behavior of ultra-high strength steels (UHSS) subject to a single pulse of electric current is briefly introduced, and electrically-assisted (EA) blanking, which utilizes this electroplastic characteristic, is suggested. The experimental result shows that the blanking load of EA blanking is clearly lower than that of blanking with local resistance heating, which is lower than that of cold blanking. No significant change in material properties was observed in the EA blanked parts at the electric energy densities selected in the present study. EA blanking or trimming is expected to minimize or even eliminate the need for expensive and time-consuming laser trimming in the manufacture of automotive parts using UHSS.
Determination of friction law in dry metal forming with DLC coated tool
Zhigang Wang, Yasuharu Yoshikawa, Tatsuhiro Suzuki, Kozo Osakada (1)  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.277
Keywords: Tribology, Forming, Friction law
Abstract : Frictional behaviour in dry metal forming is studied with a developed tribometer using aluminium specimens and a DLC coated tool. The ratio of flattened area by smooth tool surface starts to increase sharply after the occurrence of bulk plastic deformation. As deformation proceeds, the contact pressure and frictional stress on the flattened area decrease by following Coulomb's law, because once flattened surface leaves the tool surface. A friction law with a constant friction coefficient at low pressure and the associated frictional stress at high pressure is proposed and confirmed.
Wear behaviour in a combined micro blanking and deep drawing process
Hendrik Flosky, Frank Vollertsen (1)   
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.281
Keywords: Micro forming, Wear, Dry forming
Abstract : A one stroke micro blanking and deep drawing process is used to produce micro cups in a high quantity (200 strokes per minute) with an outer diameter of 1 mm. For cutting and deep drawing one single hollow punch is used. The outer diameter punches the circular blank while the inner diameter serves as drawing ring. Investigations regarding the tool life show that the punching edge wears out quicker than the rest of the tool. Furthermore it is shown that the positioning of the tool has a high influence on the wear behaviour.
Friction control for accurate cold forged parts
Peter Groche (1), Benjamin Hess  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.285
Keywords: Process control, Cold forming, Uncertainty
Abstract : An oscillating ram movement can be used to reduce friction and thereby forming forces in cold forging. This effect is attributed to the rebuilding of the lubricating film during back stroke. A corresponding motion control also affects the final part's geometry and enables a reaction to uncertainties like the actual semi-finished product properties. Based on numerical and experimental investigations the paper discusses the potentials and prerequisites of this kind of closed-loop control of the final part's geometry.
Control of thermal contraction of aluminum alloy for precision cold forging
Takashi Ishikawa (2), Takahiro Ishiguro, Nobuki Yukawa, Takamitsu Goto,   
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.289
Keywords: Forging, Accuracy, Servo press
Abstract : Thermal contraction affects the final geometry of a cold forged product. Control of the thermal geometry changes of aluminum alloys is essential because aluminum alloys have higher thermal conductivity than other metals. Finite element analysis revealed that inhomogeneous temperature distributions cause local heat shrinkage, which lowers the accuracy of the final geometry. An optimal slide motion was proposed to ensure uniform temperature distribution. Simulation results indicated that oscillatory slide motion is superior at ensuring a uniform temperature distribution, and this was confirmed by experiments. Our study showed that process design with consideration for temperature distribution is advantageous.
Determination of local properties of plastic anisotropy in thick plate by small-cube compression test for precise simulation of plate forging
Kazuhiko Kitamura, Motoki Terano    / Yasuhisa Tozawa (1)
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.293
Keywords: Plate forging, Anisotropy, Simulation
Abstract : A small-cube compression test is proposed to experimentally determine local properties of plastic anisotropy. Small cube specimens are cut out of a thick plate in various positions. After the test the shape of a compressed plane on the specimen changes from a square into a rectangle due to plastic anisotropy. The six anisotropic constants in Hill's yield criterion are calculated from the ratios of width-to-length strains on the compressed rectangular plane. The deformed shapes of a cylinder and a block after upsetting can be precisely simulated by considering the local properties of plastic anisotropy.
Characterization of kinematic hardening and yield surface evolution from uniaxial to biaxial tension with continuous strain path change
Marion Merklein (2), Sebastian Suttner, Alexander Brosius  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.297
Keywords: Sheet metal, Stress, Kinematic hardening
Abstract : With respect to multistage forming processes the material behaviour and the history of the strain path during the process is of special interest for the improvement of the numerical prediction of forming processes. While different researchers investigated the Bauschinger effect during a load reversal and biaxial loading with pre-strained specimens, in this paper the yield locus evolution in the first quadrant of the principles stress space under biaxial loading of a modified cruciform specimen without test interruption is presented. The movement of the yield surface centre caused by kinematic hardening is approximated by an alternative approach based on experimental results.
Improvement in formability by control of temperature in hot stamping of ultra-high strength steel parts
Tomoyoshi Maeno, Ken-ichiro Mori (1), Takaaki Nagai  
STC F,  63/1/2014,  P.301
Keywords: Hot stamping, Sheet metal, Temperature control
Abstract : The formability in hot stamping of an ultra-high strength steel part was improved by preventing a temperature drop of the flange increasing resistance to drawing. The temperature drop was reduced by high speed forming using a servo press and by less contact with a die and blankholder using spacers thicker than the sheet. In addition, hardening of the flange was prevented by slow cooling for the less contact using the spacers to facilitate trimming of the hot-stamped part. From a hot deep drawing experiment with a hemispherical punch, the effectiveness of the present approaches of temperature control was demonstrated.

 STC G 

A new surgical grinding wheel for suppressing grinding heat generation in bone resection
Toshiyuki Enomoto (2), Hironori Shigeta, Tatsuya Sugihara, Urara Satake  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.305
Keywords: Grinding, Tool, Biomedical manufacturing
Abstract : Existing surgical technologies are unable to prevent thermal injury to adjacent tissues such as nerves that result from grinding heat generated during bone resection. To address this problem, bone grinding experiments were conducted under irrigation using commercial surgical diamond wheels to clarify the grinding characteristics. On the basis of the findings, new diamond wheels coated with submicron-sized titanium dioxide particles were developed to enhance the hydrophilicity of the wheel surfaces. The developed grinding wheels significantly suppressed bone temperature elevation during grinding compared to the commercial wheels.
Surface Finishing of Cobalt Chromium Alloy Femoral Knee Components
Hitomi Yamaguchi (2), Arthur A Graziano  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.309
Keywords: Polishing, Material removal, Surface modification
Abstract : This paper describes the modification of surface roughness and lay of cobalt chromium alloy femoral knee components by Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF), including clarification of the MAF surface-processing mechanisms. The MAF process creates characteristic surfaces by micro-cutting of abrasive pressed by magnetic particles that nearly conform to the surface, removing large asperities and creating microasperities compared to hand-buffed surfaces. The process enables smoothing the surface on the nanometer scale with critical control of surface lay (e.g., crosshatch angle), altering the contact angle of water by a combination of kinematic behavior of magnetic particles over the freeform condyle surface.
Fine Finishing of Ground DOE Lens of Synthetic Silica by Magnetic Field-Assisted Polishing
Hirofumi Suzuki (2), Mutsumi Okada, Weimin Lin, Shinya Morita, Yutaka Yamagata, Hideo Hanada, Hiroshi Araki, Shingo Kashima,   
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.313
Keywords: Grinding, Polishing, DOE lens
Abstract : Needs of micro structured optical components are increasing in the astronomical space telescope. In the space having extremely large temperature differences, a diffractive optical element (DOE) lens is very effective in reducing the thermal chromatic aberration due to the thermal expansion. In order to finish the ground DOE lens of synthetic silica, a magnetic field-assisted polishing is proposed. In the experiments, DOE lens ground by the sharp edged diamond wheel is finished by the magnetic field-assisted polishing. By the grinding and polishing test, changes of form deviation profiles and surface roughness profiles are evaluated and feasibility is tested.
Shape Adaptive Grinding of CVD Silicon Carbide
Anthony Beaucamp, Yoshiharu Namba, Herman Combrinck, Phillip Charlton, Richard Freeman    / Y. Furukawa (1)
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.317
Keywords: Ultra-precision, Grinding, Silicon carbide
Abstract : Because of the direct relationship between removal rate and surface roughness in conventional grinding, ultra-precision finishing of hard coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) usually involves several process steps with fixed and loose abrasives. In this paper, an innovative shape adaptive grinding (SAG) tool is introduced that allows finishing of CVD silicon carbide with roughness below 0.4 nm Ra and high removal rates up-to 100 mm³/min. The SAG tool elastically complies with freeform surfaces, while rigidity at small scales allows grinding to occur. Since material removal is time dependent, this process can improve form error iteratively through feed moderation.
Mechanisms of surface response to overlapped abrasive grits of controlled shapes and positions: An analysis of ductile and brittle materials
Paul Butler-Smith, Dragos Axinte (1), Mark Daine, Ming Chu Kong  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.321
Keywords: Grinding, Abrasion, Material removal
Abstract : Abrasive surfaces can nowadays be produced incorporating precision cutting features of controlled shape, size, protrusion and location. This study investigates the influence of defined abrasive shapes (square/triangular/conic pyramidal frusta) of designed groups of overlapped abrasives on the successive removal of ductile (Ti6Al4V) and brittle (Al2O3) materials. Scanning electron microscopy studies combined with detailed micro-topographical evaluations of scratches/adjacent material have revealed the progressive actions of material removal/displacement of Ti6Al4V and the fracture and brittle/plastic transitions of Sapphire for the different abrasive shapes, aiding a fundamental understanding of the influence of defined micro-geometries on the grinding process and resulting material surface topography.
Cutting and ploughing forces for small clearance angles of hexa-octahedron shaped diamond grains
Robert Transchel , Christian Leinenbach, Konrad Wegener (2)  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.325
Keywords: Modelling, Grinding, Ploughing
Abstract : Investigations on the cutting behaviour of hexa-octahedron diamonds outlined an enormous influence of the grains' clearance angle on the material removal process. Small negative clearance angles lead to increased specific cutting forces, decreased cutting force ratios and micro-structural changes. This is caused by additional ploughing of the material. This paper presents a kinematic-phenomenological model predicting the specific forces that are caused by the ploughed material. Therefore, the theoretical value of the specific ploughed volume is introduced as characteristic parameter. Results are subsequently compared for different grain cutting situations to experimental data allowing a validation of the proposed model.
Micromilling characteristics and electrochemically assisted reconditioning of polycrystalline diamond tool surfaces for ultra-precision machining of high-purity SiC
Kazutoshi Katahira, Shogo Takesue, Jun Komotori, Kazuo Yamazaki (1)  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.329
Keywords: Micromachining, Silicon carbide, Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool
Abstract : The production of extremely thick silicon carbide (SiC) has recently become possible with the advent of a specific chemical vapor deposition process. Ultra-precision machining of high-purity SiC has been performed by using a polycrystalline diamond (PCD) micromilling tool to investigate the machining characteristics. Results indicate that a high-quality surface (Ra = 1.7 nm) can be obtained when the removed chips are thin enough to achieve ductile mode machining. Micron-sized wells and groove structures with nanometer-scale surface roughness were successfully machined by using the PCD tool. In addition, a new electrochemically assisted surface reconditioning process has been proposed to remove the contaminant material adhered onto the PCD tool surfaces after prolonged machining.
Cycle optimization in cam-lobe grinding for high productivity
Peter Krajnik, Radovan Drazumeric , Jeffrey Badger, Fukuo Hashimoto (1)  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.333
Keywords: Grinding, Optimization, Cam lobe
Abstract : Cycle optimization in cam-lobe grinding is presented for improving productivity. It includes novel modeling of the instantaneous geometry, kinematics and temperature for any workpiece form. A technical assessment of three process-control strategies - (1) constant specific material removal rate, (2) constant power, and (3) constant temperature - is made. The constant-temperature process provides the shortest cycle time without thermal damage. A detailed analysis of this process considers the role of machine limitations, including maximum speed, acceleration, and jerk, as well as the cam-lobe geometrical effects. The optimization results are validated by grinding tests in an actual production line.
Process force and technology model for designing and controlling finishing operations with rotating grinding tools
Bernhard Karpuschewski (1), Harald Goldau, Ronny Stolze  
STC G,  63/1/2014,  P.337
Keywords: Finishing, Process design, Process control
Abstract : Today the technological design of fine machining processes like finishing of plane surfaces is still a procedure based on experience. In addition finishing technology is the result of an em-pirical approach. Innovative methods for designing and controlling superfinish operations make use of models and the implementation of procedures that allow the derivation of optimal technological pa-rameters and process control strategies as well as the prediction of cutting behaviour of abrasive tools. These process and technology models are based on measuring and evaluating process vari-ables like process forces or cutting torque and parameters of the electric drive like motor cur-rent or torque. With these models a finishing process is achieved on the basis of mathematical and techno-logical principles wherein the grinding tool works in a self-sharpening condition providing optimal results.

 STC M 

Monitoring of distance between diamond tool edge and workpiece surface in ultraprecision cutting using evanescent light
Hayato Yoshioka (2), Hidenori Shinno (1), Hiroshi Sawano, Ryoichi Tanigawa  
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.341
Keywords: Monitoring, Diamond tool, Evanescent light
Abstract : The interaction between a tool and a workpiece during machining determines the quality of a machined workpiece. This study presents a novel direct monitoring method using evanescent light, which detects the distance between a diamond tool edge and the workpiece surface. In the proposed method, evanescent light is generated around the diamond tool edge, and the intensity of the reflected laser beam corresponds to the distance between the tool edge and the workpiece surface. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed method is capable of monitoring the distance change of a submicrometer scale.
Experimental modal analysis using a tracking interferometer
Christian Brecher (1), Stephan Bäumler, Alexander Guralnik   
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.345
Keywords: Vibration, Measurement, Machine tool
Abstract : Experimental modal analysis is carried out for machine tools and in various other industries. It is used for dynamic characterization, diagnostics, condition monitoring, design optimization and as comparison data for computation results. 3D-scanning laser Doppler velocimeters and three-axial accelerometers dominate the experimental modal analysis today. This paper presents a method for modal analysis using a tracking interferometer as well for geometric measurement as for simultaneous 3D-vibration measurement with a single laser beam. A holistic measurement procedure is developed, its performance and robustness against external influences is investigated and a benchmark against accelerometers is carried out at a machining center.
Modelling vibration transmission in the mechanical and control system of a precision machine
Chang-Ju Kim, Jeong-Seok Oh, Chun-Hong Park    / D.Y. Yang (1)
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.349
Keywords: Machine tool, Vibration, Finite element method (FEM)
Abstract : The relative vibration between tool and workpiece factors significantly to the performance of a precision machine. This paper develops a model for predicting the vibration transmission from two major excitation sources, ground vibration and fluid bearing force, to the tool and the workpiece position through the mechanical and control system of a precision machine. We synthesised the frequency response functions obtained from a finite element analysis of the machine to create transmissibility matrices that define the dynamic behaviours of the electromechanical system. The validity of the developed model was checked by comparing the measured relative vibrations to the results calculated from the measured excitations.
Analytical prediction of contact stiffness and friction damping in bolted connection
Eiji Shamoto (1), Yohei Hashimoto, Miki Shinagawa, Burak Sencer   
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.353
Keywords: Structural analysis, Damping, Contact stiffness
Abstract : This paper presents an analytical method to predict contact stiffness and friction damping in bolted connections. Despite its importance in machine design, analytical prediction of the contact parameters has not been realized because of difficulty in time-history nonlinear analysis of sticking/sliding contact. In this study, a torsional contact model around a connecting bolt is developed. Linear phenomena are extracted and solved by FEM analysis, and then linear combination of the FEM results is calculated iteratively to search sticking/sliding zones in torque equilibrium. Proposed model is experimentally validated, and it will lead to fully analytical modelling of practical machines.
Evaluation of electromagnetic guides in machine tools
Berend Denkena (1), Oliver Guemmer, Felix Floeter   
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.357
Keywords: Machine tool, Magnetic bearing, Drive
Abstract : Guides in machine tools aim for high accuracy, stiffness and damping. However, these characteristics are mainly limited by the working principle. In this paper, the implementation of electromagnetic guides in linear machine tool axes is evaluated. A milling machine prototype, having the opportunity of using ball guides or electromagnetic guides in the z-axis, is used. Primarily, working principle and properties of the electromagnetic guide are presented and analyzed. Operating behaviour, stiffness and damping of the two guiding principles are compared. The electromagnetic guide is finally assessed in the milling process and beneficial functions of the system are presented.
Double nut ball screw with improved operating characteristics
Alexander W. Verl (2), Siegfried Frey, Tobias Heinze  
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.361
Keywords: Ball screw, Design optimization, Preloading
Abstract : The performance and availability of production machines is strongly affected by the operating characteristics of the installed ball screws. In this context, the value of preloading is an important property greatly influencing the quality of the feed motion as well as the expected service life. Dynamic applications often require ball screws with high preloading values. As a result, such systems typically suffer from high friction values with the involved wear and heat generation. This paper presents a novel design principle for ball screws, allowing for a considerable reduction of the preloading and hence an overall improvement of the operating characteristics.
Active Chatter Suppression in Turning by Band-Limited Force Control
Yasuhiro Kakinuma (2), Kazuto Enomoto, Takayuki Hirano, Kouhei Ohnishi   
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.365
Keywords: Chatter, Turning, Band-limited force control
Abstract : The suppression of chatter vibration is required to enhance the machined surface quality and to increase tool life. In this study, a new, conceptually active approach for chatter suppression in machining is proposed. The hybrid control method developed by applying sensorless force control with a disturbance observer enables the simultaneous and independent control of the position trajectory and band-limited forces. The proposed method is introduced to the carriage of a prototype desktop-sized turning machine, and the ability to suppress chatter is evaluated by end-face cutting tests. The results demonstrate that actively controlling a band-limited force leads to the avoidance of chatter.
Magnetic Actuator for Active Damping of Boring Bars
Xiaodong Lu, Fan Chen, Yusuf Altintas (1)   
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.369
Keywords: Boring, Damping, Active
Abstract : This paper presents a new, noncontact magnetic actuator instrumented with fiber optic displacement sensors. The actuator is composed of four identical electromagnetic units which are linearized with a novel design strategy. The magnetic force can be delivered in two radial directions for active damping of lateral modes of the boring bar. The actuator is manufactured and mounted on a CNC lathe. The bending mode of the boring bar is actively damped, and the dynamic stiffness of the system was increased significantly, resulting in chatter-free higher depth of cuts. The actuator has been experimentally tested in boring operations.
Vibration Suppression of Boring Bar by Piezoelectric Actuators and LR Circuit
Atsushi Matsubara (2), Minetaka Maeda, Iwao Yamaji   
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.373
Keywords: Chatter, Damping, Piezoelectric actuator
Abstract : This paper presents the vibration suppression of a boring bar using piezoelectric actuators installed in the boring bar, and an inductor-resister (LR) circuit, which acts as a mechanical dynamic absorber. The frequency response function of the compliance was designed so that its real part is constrained to suppress regenerative chatter. The designed boring bar with an optimally tuned LR circuit was set on a lathe to evaluate its dynamic characteristic, and it was found that the chatter vibration was successfully suppressed in the cutting test.
Time-optimized hole sequence planning for 5-axis on-the-fly laser drilling
Kaan Erkorkmaz (2), Ammar Alzaydi, Amr Elfizy, Serafettin Engin (3)  
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.377
Keywords: Sequencing, Spline, Laser drilling
Abstract : On-the-fly laser drilling requires the use of acceleration continuous trajectories, which are typically planned using time parameterized spline functions. In this operation, the choice of hole drilling sequence, and positioning timings in between the holes, play a critical role in determining the achievable cycle time. This paper presents a new algorithm for sequencing 5-axis on-the-fly laser drilling hole locations and timings. The algorithm considers machine tool and process constraints, as well as the temporal nature of the final commanded spline trajectory. The achievable productivity and motion smoothness improvement are demonstrated in the production of a gas turbine combustion chamber panel.
Mechanically coupled high dynamic linear motors - a new design approach and its control strategy
Matthias Rehm, Steffen Ihlenfeldt (3), Holger Schlegel, Welf-Guntram Drossel (3)    / R. Neugebauer (1)
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.381
Keywords: Control, Linear motor, Coupled drives
Abstract : Improved drive dynamics decisively boost productivity and accuracy of cutting machine tools. Linear motors have advantages to overcome drawbacks of electromechanical drives, but are limited by their power density. Reaction forces of linear motors cause undesired excitation of the machine structure. Current research approaches focus on impulse decoupling and compensation as well as on force reduction. The paper presents a new design approach, characterised by two mechanically coupled and opposite driving linear motors. This arrangement improves the static and dynamic properties by force distribution which leads to an impulse-free feedback system. In order to have an effective use of the gained dynamics various control structures for cou-pled drives are investigated. Tuning methods as well as simulation and experimental results are discussed.
Cylindrical Milling Tools: Comparative Real Case Study for Process Stability
G. Stepan (2), J. Munoa (2), T. Insperger, M. Surico, D. Bachrathy, Z. Dombovari  
STC M,  63/1/2014,  P.385
Keywords: Cutting, Milling, Chatter
Abstract : Critical comparison is presented related to the stability behavior of milling processes performed by conventional, variable helix and serrated milling tools. The paper presents a general milling model linked to any non-proportionally damped dynamic system. Extended multi frequency solution and semi-discretization are implemented and used to calculate the stability of stationary milling. Measurements performed in industrial environment validate the general numerical algorithm that is able to predict the stability conditions of milling processes carried out by cylindrical cutters of optional geometry. Both the calculations and the measurements confirm that, for roughing operations, the highest stability gain can be achieved by serrated cutters. It is also demonstrated that variable helix milling tools can achieve better stability behavior only if their geometry is optimized for the given cutting operation.

 STC O 

Dynamic modelling of impact of lean policies on production levelling feasibility
Hoda ElMaraghy (1), Ahmed Deif  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.389
Keywords: Systems, Dynamic, Lean implementation feasibility
Abstract : A dynamic systems approach is proposed to investigate challenges of implementing production levelling and associated costs. A model of a lean cell is developed using system dynamics. The model captures various lean tools influencing production levelling. Comparative cost analysis between various levelling implementation policies for stochastic demand with multiple products is conducted. Results showed that determining the most feasible levelling policy is highly dictated by both capacity scalability cost and limitations. The developed model and revealed insights can help lean practitioners to better decide on when and how to implement production levelling as well as determine production lots sizes.
The implications of automobile parts supply network structures: a complex network approach
Tomomi Kito, Kanji Ueda (1)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.393
Keywords: Complexity, Structural analysis, Supply network
Abstract : This study investigates the temporal structural transitions of automobile supply networks where, under situations with various possible risks such as economic crises and market globalisation, companies must both work together for sustainable production, and also compete with each other for their own survival. The resulting network complexity is captured by large-scale empirical data, and analysed for the first time using concepts and metrics developed in complex network science. We discuss how network structure reflects the effect of several factors including market fluctuation, product standardisation, technological advancement, and financial interdependencies between companies.
Multi-objective optimization of global manufacturing networks taking into account multi-dimensional uncertainty
Gisela Lanza (2), Raphael Moser  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.397
Keywords: Manufacturing network, Uncertainty, Optimization
Abstract : By designing global manufacturing networks there are purely cost-based decisions made, in which objectives as delivery time, quality, flexibility, closeness to customer and coordination effort are neglected. The design and decision-making process becomes even more complex, the more influencing factors of the business environment are considered. Due to the dynamic and uncertainty of these factors a decision support is required which includes all relationships in the network and its environment. This paper presents a dynamic multi-objective optimization model for global manufacturing networks, which evaluates the impact of changes of influencing factors and optimizes the global design of the manufacturing network.
Experimental study of work system networking in production environment
Gasper Skulj, Rok Vrabic, Peter Butala (2)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.401
Keywords: Production, Distributed manufacturing, Network
Abstract : In the context of distributed manufacturing, existing models for the management of orders and work systems assume that the entirety of information about the state of the production environment is known. Instead, this paper studies the implications of networking in an environment in which no element possesses information about the entire state. An experiment in the form of a production simulation game is designed and carried out to explore the emergence and behaviour of such a network. Network structure and dynamics as well as the social aspects of networking are discussed and evaluated.
Consequences of planned lead time adaptions in scope of the lead time syndrome of production control
Katja Windt, Mathias Knollmann    / Marvin DeVries (1)
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.405
Keywords: Production, Control, Simulation
Abstract : If order due dates are missed, a frequent reaction of production planners is to adapt planned lead times. How often and to what extent updates are reasonable has previously been unclear because, while trying to improve logistic target achievement, the opposite effect may be caused, which is known as the Lead Time Syndrome of Production Control. This paper investigates correlations between Lead Time Syndrome variables using a control theoretic model to gain knowledge about system transient response and the influence of the lead time updating frequency and information delay on due date reliability. These investigations lead to fundamental improvements in practice in setting planning parameters.
A cloud-based approach for WEEE remanufacturing
Lihui Wang (2), Xi Vincent Wanga, Liang Gaob, Jozsef Vancza (1)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.409
Keywords: Recycling, Service, Cloud manufacturing
Abstract : The modern manufacturing industry calls for a new generation of integration models that are more interoperable, intelligent, adaptable and distributed. Evolved from service-oriented architecture, web-based manufacturing and cloud computing, cloud manufacturing is discussed world-widely which enables manufacturing enterprises to respond quickly and effectively to the changing global market. Especially for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), it is a critical necessity to recycle, reuse and remanufacture WEEE products by shaping a cloud-based information system. In this paper, a novel service-oriented remanufacturing platform is proposed based on cloud manufacturing concept.
A Method for Designing Customer-Oriented Demand Response Aggregation Service
Yoshiki Shimomura (2), Yutaro Nemoto, Fumiya Akasaka, Ryosuke Chiba, Koji Kimita  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.413
Keywords: Service, Optimisation, Demand response
Abstract : Demand response (DR), which controls electric usage of customers when electric system reliability is jeopardized, attracts much societal attention. To realize a pragmatic DR, aggregators have to make well customized requests for power saving so that they can keep each customer comfortable in energy use. An engineering method is proposed here to design DR aggregation service from the view point of various customers' comfort. The idea is to use an optimum resource allocation method that can provide quantitative information on how much electric power should be saved by each customer. The application validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Prediction of customer demands for production planning - Automated selection and configuration of suitable prediction methods
Bernd Scholz-Reiter (1), Mirko Kück, Dennis Lappe  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.417
Keywords: Production planning, Pattern recognition, Predictive models
Abstract : Demand planning is of significant importance for manufacturing companies since subsequent steps of production planning base on demand forecasts. Major tasks of demand planning are the selection of a prediction method and the configuration of its parameters subject to a given demand evolution. This paper introduces a novel method for the automated selection and configuration of suitable prediction methods for time series of customer demands. The research investigates correlations between dynamic time series characteristics and forecasting accuracies of different prediction methods. The evaluation of the method on a database comprising real industry data confirms excellent prediction results.
Customer preference based optimization in selecting product/service variety
Nariaki Nishino (2), Takeshi Takenaka, Hitoshi Koshiba, Keita Kodama   
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.421
Keywords: Optimization, Decision making, Service engineering
Abstract : The breadth of customer choice of products and services has increased dramatically. Consequently, both manufacturing and services have adopted elaborate variety management to satisfy various customer needs while maintaining business profitability. Our study presents a formulation of variety selection problems considering customer preferences by the introduction of preference order from economic theory. Using Frequent Shopper Program data of a large shopping mall in Japan, our proposed framework is applied to the optimization of tenant-mix problems as a case study of service variety selection. Results demonstrate how an optimized variety of shops can satisfy various customer preferences at a reasonable profit level.
Intelligent dynamic part routing policies in Plug&Produce Reconfigurable Transportation Systems
Emanuele Carpanzano (2), Amedeo Cesta, Andrea Orlandini, Riccardo Rasconi, Anna Valente  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.425
Keywords: Reconfiguration, Planning, Auctioning algorithm
Abstract : Reconfigurable Transportation Systems (RTSs) are conceived as multiple independent modules to implement alternative inbound logistic systems' configurations. Together with mechatronic interfaces and distributed control solutions, the full exploitation of RTS plug&produce features relies on flexible production management policies. The current work proposes an innovative approach to dynamically compute part routings in RTSs. It is designed as fully distributed across transportation modules; based on current RTS' topology and status, it ensures the autonomy in selecting routing decisions while embracing global and local evolving optimization strategies. The benefits of the approach have been investigated with reference to an industrial case study.
Modelling of lateness distributions depending on the sequencing method with respect to productivity effects
Sebastian Bertsch, Matthias Schmidt, Peter Nyhuis (2)   
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.429
Keywords: Modeling, Logistics, Schedule reliability
Abstract : Productivity and schedule reliability are two major objectives for production areas. Companies can influence both objectives by the applied sequencing rule. While a due-date oriented sequencing rule supports the schedule reliability, a setup-time oriented sequencing rule increases productivity. Thus, a field of tension between these objectives exists in which companies have to position their production areas. To support the positioning, this paper provides a model for calculating the output lateness distribution of a production system for a setup-time oriented and a first-in-first-out sequencing rule. Furthermore, the effect of the applied rule on productivity of production systems is analyzed.
Global Footprint Design based on genetic algorithms - An
Guenther Schuh (1), Till Potente, Rawina Varandani, Torben Schmitz  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.433
Keywords: Production planning, Distributed manufacturing, Optimization
Abstract : A cost-optimized design of a global production network is a complex task. Several optimization tools exist that determine cost-minimized solutions for defined points of times in the future but often do not take into account the development of the network over time. The approach of this article is to analyze a series of different cost-optimized scenarios for several points of time in the future with distinct parameter settings and compare its network structures. The goal of such broad calculations of future scenarios according to the idea of "Industry 4.0" is to identify a path in the trade-off between the costs for migrating a network structure into another one and the total landed costs of the regarded series of future network scenarios. The approach will be validated using data from real industrial case studies.
A holistic and rapid sustainability assessment tool for manufacturing SMEs
Danfang Chen, Sebastian Thiede, Timo Schudeleit, Christoph Herrmann (2)    / Arne Novak (1)
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.437
Keywords: Sustainable development, Tool, Assessment
Abstract : Sustainable development is a broad term and is complex in nature because it has three dimensions. While continuous management is necessary, especially for SMEs, there is a lack of easily applicable tools that assess the status of sustainability based on key performance indicators and that derive priorities for systematic improvement. Based on this information, this paper presents a holistic sustainability assessment tool for manufacturing SMEs. The tool is applicable on a factory level with reasonable effort, provides decision support for improvements and enables a cross-industry comparison. A case study at a Swedish company has been performed to verify the usability.
Co-simulation environment for optimizing energy efficiency in production systems
Friedrich Bleicher (3), Fabian Duer, Ines Leobner, Iva Kovacic, Bernhard Heinzl, Wolfgang Kastner    / Guenter Pritschow (1)
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.441
Keywords: Simulation, Energy efficiency, Production planning
Abstract : Production processes are resource and energy intensive. To meet the increasing requirements on sustainable production and to assure economic competitiveness, novel strategic approaches are necessary in designing production systems, for which integrated simulation as holistic decision support tool is proposed. An integrated simulation in terms of a co-simulation allows coupling of simulation environments at runtime in order to link different model descriptions (e.g. differential equations, data-based models) and computational algorithms (e.g. explicit/implicit ODE solvers with independent step sizes). Incorporating interactions across different optimization fields i.e. machines, energy system and building a practical case study identifies significant energy and emission savings.
Profiling as a means of implementing volume-oriented changeability in the context of strategic production management
Manuel Rippel, Jens Lübkemann, Peter Nyhuis (2), Paul Schönsleben (2)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.445
Keywords: Manufacturing, Decision making, Changeability
Abstract : Operational changeability has proven itself as a successful concept at shop floor level. However, it neglects the major fixed costs aspect emerging from supporting functional areas (e.g., engineering, maintenance) and resulting in high variance of unit costs when production output fluctuates. This paper extends the changeability approach to strategic plant level. Conflicting goals are identified and underlying contradictions are revealed. These are aggregated to four dimensions for profiling strategic changeability. The profiling enables decision makers obtaining characteristic profiles increasing transparency of intradimensional and interdimensional discrepancies. Resolving these results in balanced configurations in terms of volume-oriented changeability.
Change Detection in Precision Manufacturing Processes under Transient Conditions
Zimo Wang, Satish T.S. Bukkapatnam, Soundar Kumara (1), Zhenyu Kong, Zvi Katz (1)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.449
Keywords: Quality assurance, Predictive model, Complex systems
Abstract : Detection of incipient process variations in nonlinear and transient behaviors from sensor signals is becoming increasingly necessary for quality assurance in microelectronics and ultraprecision manufacturing operations. We present a symbolic dynamic Dirichlet process Gaussian mixture (SDPGM) representation to capture the complex process dynamics as a random concatenation of nonlinear (non-Gaussian) stationary segments, and develop a method to discern incipient fault-inducing changes. Extensive experiments suggest that the present approach was able to detect subtle process changes that cause severe surface damage in ultraprecision machining (UPM) process within 24 ms, compared to at least 72 ms required with other methods tested.
Integrated Quality and Production Logistics Modelling for the Design of Selective and Adaptive Assembly Systems
Marcello Colledani, Dariush Ebrahimi, Tullio Tolio (1)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.453
Keywords: Assembly, Performance, Electric drives
Abstract : Due to the increasing pressure on high precision manufacturing and the development of on-line measurement technologies, selective and adaptive assembly systems have attracted increasing interest in emerging sectors such as micro-production, biomedical and e-mobility industry. Selective assembly allows producing high precision assemblies from low precision components, at the cost of increasing the complexity of the system. This paper presents an integrated quality and production logistics model to profitably manage this trade-off. Results show that improved performance is achieved towards existing solutions, which deal only with quality aspects. The industrial benefits are shown through application to real manufacturing contexts.
Capacity management for assembly systems with dedicated and reconfigurable resources
David Gyulaia, Botond Kadar (2), Andras Kovacs, Laszlo Monostori (1)  
STC O,  63/1/2014,  P.457
Keywords: Production planning, Reconfiguration, Optimization
Abstract : Managing changes and disturbances resulted by fluctuating order streams and diverse product portfolios requires efficient capacity management decisions and production planning strategies. High volume products can be produced cost efficiently on dedicated assembly lines, while the assembly of low runners is more efficient on reconfigurable lines. In the paper a hierarchical planning decision workflow is introduced to assign the products to dedicated and reconfigurable lines, and to optimize the system configuration and the production plan of the reconfigurable system in an integrated way. The proposed solution is demonstrated through the results of an industrial case study.

 STC P 

A two-axis Lloyd's mirror interferometer for fabrication of two dimensional diffraction gratings
Xinghui Li, Wei Gao (1), Yuki Shimizu, So Ito  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.461
Keywords: Interferometry, Laser, Structure
Abstract : A new two-axis Lloyd's mirror interferometer based on multi-beam interference is proposed. A square grating substrate with normal in the Z-axis is placed edge to edge with two rectangular mirrors with normals parallel to the XZ-plane (X-mirror) and the YZ-plane (Y-mirror), respectively. The angle between the substrate and each mirror is set to be larger than 90 degrees so that the beams reflected by the mirrors can be superimposed with the direct beam at the substrate to produce two-dimensional (2D) diffraction grating structures in a single exposure. Sub-micron pitched 2D hole grating structures were fabricated and evaluated.
A novel dark field in-process optical inspection method for micro-openings on mirrored surfaces beyond the diffraction limit using active phase control
Satoru Takahashi (2), Hiroki Yokozeki, Daiyu Fujii, Ryota Kudo, Kiyoshi Takamasu   
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.465
Keywords: Inspection, Optical, Nanostructure
Abstract : We propose a novel in-process optical inspection method for micro-openings on a mirrored surface, such as mechanical functional gaps in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and microchannels in microfluidics systems. The proposed method has not only highly sensitive detection characteristics based on dark field observations but also super-resolution observation characteristics based on the light scattering dependence of the edges of the micro-opening on the orientation of incident light under coherent imaging. Both theoretical and experimental analyses suggest that we can confirm the existence of proper micro-openings beyond the diffraction limit of imaging optics by shifting the relative phase of the counter-propagating incident beams.
Measurement of probe-stylus sphere diameter for micro-CMM based on spectral fingerprint of whispering gallery modes
Masaki Michihata, Terutake Hayashi, Atsushi Adachi, Yasuhiro Takaya (2)  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.469
Keywords: Coordinate measuring machine (CMM), Probe, Whispering gallery mode
Abstract : Probe calibration contributes measurement uncertainty of micro-coordinate measuring machine (micro-CMM). This study proposes a new method of measuring the diameter of a stylus sphere for micro-CMM based on analysis of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). Depending on incident wavelength, different WGMs will be excited in the probe-stylus. This wavelength spectral fingerprint is also sensitive to the diameter of a sphere. In this paper, the diameter of the micro-probe stylus sphere was determined by means of least square method between theoretical and measured spectra of WGMs. Measurement results showed that precision of the proposed method was ±1 nm.
Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items
Jais Angel, Leonardo De Chiffre (1)  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.473
Keywords: Coordinate measuring machine (CMM), Measurement uncertainty, Computed Tomography (CT)
Abstract : In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference measurement uncertainties in the range 1.5-5.5 µm, showing a good stability over the 6 months of the circulation. The comparison has shown that CT measurements on the industrial parts used lie in the range 6-53 µm, with maximum values up to 158 µm.
Benefit quantification of interoperability in coordinate metrology
Enrico Savio (2), Simone Carmignato (2), Leonardo De Chiffre (1)  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.477
Keywords: Manufacturing, Economics, Coordinate metrology
Abstract : One of the factors contributing to limited reproducibility of coordinate measurements is the use of different inspection software. Time-consuming efforts for translation of part programs are sometimes needed, and interoperability of inspection equipment has the potential to reduce these inefficiencies. The paper presents a methodology for an economic evaluation of interoperability benefits with respect to the verification of geometrical product specifications. It requires input data from testing and inspection activities, as well as information on training of personnel and licensing of software. The model is illustrated using an automotive case study and the related assessment of an investment in interoperability.
Modeling and Analysis of Uncertainty in the Form Characterization of Ultra-precision Freeform Surfaces on Coordinate Measuring Machines
Benny ChiFai Cheung, MingJun Ren, LingBao Kong, David Whitehouse (1)   
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.481
Keywords: Surface, Measurement, Uncertainty
Abstract : This paper presents an uncertainty analysis model for the form characterization of ultra-precision freeform surfaces on coordinate measuring machines (CMM). The model is developed by incorporating the effect of the CMM, the sampling plan, and the evaluation method taking into account workpiece form deviations. It allows the analysis of the uncertainty of evaluated surface parameters with respect to the magnitude of the workpiece form deviation based on Monte Carlo simulation. The effectiveness of the model was successfully verified using a designed freeform artefact on a precision CMM. The model should make the reliable form characterization of ultra-precision freeform surfaces possible.
Four-axis micro measuring systems performance verification
Giovanni Moroni (2), Stefano Petro, Wahyudin P. Syam  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.485
Keywords: Performance, Measuring instrument, Micro metrology
Abstract : An innovative artifact is proposed to test 3D optical measuring instruments integrating a rotational axis. The goal is the performance verification of four-axis measuring systems for full 3D acquisition of micro-geometric parts. This type of measurement has significant applications, e.g. in micro-tool, micro-mold, or micro-device manufacturing. The innovative artifact is as simple as possible to reduce manufacturing costs and ease calibration, while complying with the ISO 10360 standard, and considering all volumetric error contributions. The artifact may be useful for both measuring system manufacturers and users to ensure measurement traceability.
Compensation of CMM geometrical errors by the GEMIL technique: experimental results
Paola Pedone, Emanuele Audrito, Alessandro Balsamo (1)  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.489
Keywords: Coordinate measuring machine (CMM), Geometry error compensation, Interferometry
Abstract : GEMIL (Geometrical Errors by Measurement of Independent Lines) is a technique for compensating geometrical errors of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs), first introduced in [7]. It is intended for industrial application, with a focus of deriving the error components as inexpensively as possible, while still achieving state of the art accuracy. The simulations reported in [7] were validated experimentally with three industrial CMMs in non laboratory conditions, through standard testing according to the ISO 10360 2 [9]. The results prove the effectiveness of the technique and confirm GEMIL as a low cost industrial alternative to existing compensation techniques.
Online product quality monitoring through in-process measurement
Robert X. Gao (2), Xinyao Tang, Guthrie Gordon, David O. Kazmer  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.493
Keywords: Metrology, Sensor, Quality control
Abstract : Online monitoring of product quality is key to automated machine operation and process optimization. This paper demonstrates an in-process sensing technique for online product quality assessment, using injection moulding as an example. The system measures four parameters within the injection mould cavity, which are directly correlated with the part quality: melt pressure, temperature, velocity, and viscosity. Relationship between the sensor data and quality characteristics, e.g., thickness and width of the part, are established by incorporating governing physics for pressure-volume-temperature with other mechanistic models. Good agreement between sensor measurements and experimental results is confirmed from tests performed on a production-grade machine.
Characterization of precision of a handling system in high performance transfer press for micro forming
Rasoul Mahshid, Hans Norgaard Hansen (1), Mogens Arentoft (2)  
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.497
Keywords: Precision, Uncertainty, Micro forming
Abstract : Multi-step micro bulk forming is characterized by complex processes and high precision requirements. In particular the demands regarding handling accuracy between different forming steps are of the order of a few µm. The paper introduces a methodology for the analysis and characterization of this transfer system on component level and system level. Laser interferometry is used in combination with analytical models to predict the positioning ability of the actuator in a static as well as dynamic mode. In combination with an analysis of the grippers, a full description of the transfer precision inside the forming press is obtained.
Proposal of "open-loop" tracking interferometer for machine tool volumetric error measurement
Soichi Ibaraki, Keishi Nagae, Goh Sato    / K. Iwata (1)
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.501
Keywords: Metrology, Machine tool, Volumetric accuracy
Abstract : The tracking interferometer, or the laser tracker, is a laser interferometer with a mechanism to control the laser beam direction to follow a retroreflector ("target"). Applying the multilateration principle, the target's three-dimensional position is measured. This paper proposes a novel concept of "open-loop" tracking interferometer, where the laser beam is controlled toward the command target position. Its advantage is in the elimination of the automated tracking mechanism, which may significantly reduce its manufacturing cost. The paper's emphasis is on analytical evaluation of its measurement uncertainty, introduced by the elimination of automated tracking mechanism. A prototype "open-loop" tracking interferometer is developed, and its measuring performance is experimentally investigated.
Prediction of machined part accuracy from machining system capability
Andreas Archenti  / B. Lindström (1)
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.505
Keywords: Accuracy, Machine tool, Elastically Linked System (ELS)
Abstract : A novel methodology for linking machining system capability to the accuracy of a machined part is presented. Using special testing equipment, force-deviation functions in the real machine workspace are obtained. An elastically linked multi-body simulation and FE model evaluates the volumetric deviations. The deviation values are then calculated for a particular tool path. The forces and the deviations along the tool path are computed and compared with results obtained from machining experiments. This approach yields elimination of laborious machining experiments and supports an unequivocal control of machining system conditions giving the required level of part accuracy.
High Precision Grey-Box Model for Compensation of Thermal Errors on 5-Axis Machine Tools
Michael Gebhardt, Josef Mayr, Nils Furrer, Tobias Widmer, Sascha Weikert, Wolfgang Knapp (1)   
STC P,  63/1/2014,  P.509
Keywords: Machine tools, Thermal error, Modelling
Abstract : Thermally induced errors of machine tools cause up to 75% of the geometric errors on workpieces. Research carried out in the last decades focused on influences by the environment, spindles and linear axes. With the increasing demand for 5-axis machining, the rotary / swivelling axis units have to be checked and compensated for thermal errors. The R-Test set-up is a proper measuring device to characterise these errors. This paper introduces a compensation approach to reduce up to 85% of the thermally induced location errors of rotary / swivelling axis units based on internal NC signals, like power supplied to drives.

 STC S 

Fabrication of the large area thin-film solid oxide fuel cells
Joonho Park, Ikwhang Chang, Jun Yeol Paek, Sanghoon Ji, Wonyoung Lee, Suk Won Cha, Jang-Moo Lee (1)  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.513
Keywords: Nano technology, Fuel cell, Deposition
Abstract : In this study, we fabricated thin-film solid oxide fuel cells supported by nanoporous substrates in order to enlarge an active area of the fuel cells. The multilayered structures using sputtering and atomic layer deposition were utilized to form dense and defect-free electrolytes to prevent the gas leakage and electrical shortage. The fabricated cell with the active area of 25 mm2 showed the open circuit voltage of ~1.1 V and the maximum power density of ~100 mW/cm2 at 500 °C. The sheet resistance of the electrode became critical for fabrication of the thin-film solid oxide fuel cells with the large active area.
Bio-inspired self-sharpening cutting tool surface for finish hard turning of steel
Wenping Jiang (3)   / Ajay P. Malshe (1)
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.517
Keywords: Coating, Machining, Serrated
Abstract : This research presents the structural analysis and machining results of a 3-D nanostructured coating designed for finish turning of ferrous alloys. The coating design, inspired from sea urchin and shark teeth architectures, delivers serrated cutting edges and self-sharpening. The coating is realized using cubic boron nitride particles (< 2 um in size) in soft titanium nitride matrix to produce superior tool life and consistent surface finish (< 1.6 um), on-par or better than polished PCBN inserts, during finish hard-turning of 4340 alloy steel. This research also discusses mechanism based on coating materials and morphology for reducing surface contact and sliding friction at the tool-workpiece interface.
Investigating the technological limits of micro-injection molding in replicating high aspect ratio micro-structured surfaces
Giovanni Lucchetta, Marco Sorgato, Simone Carmignato (2), Enrico Savio (2)  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.521
Keywords: Replication, Molding, High-aspect-ratio features
Abstract : Micro injection molding is a key technology for mass-production of micro-structured surfaces, such as optical and microfluidic devices. However, the complete replication of high aspect ratio micro features is challenging even using state-of-the-art high-speed injection systems, rapid heat cycle molding and vacuum mold venting. In this work the technological limits of micro-injection molding in replicating high aspect ratio micro-structured surfaces are experimentally investigated, using the molding of a bio-MEMS for erythrocytes depletion as a case study. The obtained results show how these limits are inherently related to an uneven distribution of cavity pressure during mold filling.
Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic surface on thermoplastic polymer using laser beam machining and compression molding for mass production
Doo-Man Chun, Gaasuren Davaasuren, Chi-Vinh Ngo, Chung-Soo Kim, Gil-Yong Lee, Sung-Hoon Ahn (2)  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.525
Keywords: Laser beam machining (LBM), Molding, Superhydrophobic surface
Abstract : Superhydrophobic surface has unique characteristics such as water repellence and self-cleaning, and especially transparent superhydrophobic surfaces have wide applications for self-cleaned solar cells, protective optics, and building windows. In this research, laser beam machining with ultra-violet (UV) nanosecond pulse laser was utilized for fabrication of the surface textured metal mold, and the replica of thermoplastic polymer was fabricated using compression molding for mass production. Water droplet contact angle and transmittance were measured to confirm the superhydrophobicity and transparency. By controlling pattern size, the transparent superhydrophobic surface was fabricated, and the effect of pattern size was studied with wetting states.
Optimization of the plasma oxidation and abrasive polishing processes in plasma assisted polishing for highly effective planarization of 4H-SiC
Hui Deng, Kohki Monna, Takaaki Tabata, Katsuyoshi Endo, Kazuya Yamamura (2)  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.529
Keywords: Polishing, Single crystal, Surface integrity
Abstract : For the finishing of difficult-to-machine materials, plasma-assisted polishing (PAP), which combines modification by water vapor plasma and polishing by a soft abrasive, was proposed. Optimization of plasma oxidation and abrasive polishing was conducted to increase the material removal rate of PAP, which was applied to 4H-SiC (0001). It was found that with a low concentration of water vapor in helium gas, the plasma oxidation rate was greatly increased. Also, because of the different oxidation rates of the four types of terrace that appear alternately in 4H-SiC, a high removal rate of the oxide was necessary to obtain a uniform step-terrace structure with atomic order.
Investigation of the mechanical behavior of ion irradiated Ni-free Ti-based metallic glass by nanoindentation
D.A. Lucca (1), A. Zare, M.J. Klopfstein , L. Shao, G.Q. Xie   
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.533
Keywords: Surface, Nano indentation, Metallic glass
Abstract : The mechanical response of ion irradiated metallic glass specimens with nominal composition of Ti40Cu32Pd14Zr10Sn2Si2 was investigated by nanoindentation. Surfaces of specimens fabricated by the melt spinning process were irradiated with 4 MeV Fe2+ ions at 25°C over a range of fluences from 1 x 1012 to 1 x 1015 ions/cm2. Irradiations were also performed at temperatures up to 300 °C. Nanoindentation experiments were performed to obtain values of reduced elastic modulus and hardness and to investigate the material's shear band behavior. Irradiation was found to result in a lower reduced elastic modulus and hardness, however was found to increase homogeneous deformation by suppression of shear band activity.
Vibration Assisted Nano Mechanical Machining using AFM Probe
Simon S. Park (2), M. Golam Mostofa, Chaneel I. Park, Majid Mehrpouya, Seonghwan Kim  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.537
Keywords: Nano manufacturing, Atomic force microscopy, Vibration assisted machining
Abstract : Tip-based nano mechanical machining can remove materials with nanometer accuracy by engaging an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe onto the workpiece. Vibration assisted nano mechanical machining is proposed by externally actuating the workpiece in elliptical motions in the XY plane and linear motion in the Z-axis. Effects of different vibration techniques on forces and geometry of grooves were investigated. XY planar and Z-axis vibration assisted nano mechanical machining reduced cutting forces, apparent friction and burr formation and increased the depth of groove (DOG). The method enables the fabrication of complex nanoscale geometries.
Nano-CT Characterization of the Microstructure in the Nonwoven Polishing Wheel
Yancheng Wang, Weisi Li, Albert J. Shih (2)  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.541
Keywords: Polishing, Microstructure, Nonwoven wheel
Abstract : This research presents an approach to characterize the 3D microstructure of the abrasive, epoxy resin, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber, and porosity in a nonwoven polishing wheel using the nano-computed tomography (nano-CT). The 0.8 µm pixel size nano-CT scanning enables detailed spatial reconstruction of a wheel sample to measure the size, spacing, volumetric ratios and connectivity of abrasive, resin, fiber, and porosity. Results show that the SiC is long and angular and lumped in regions, the resin connects the SiC and fiber, and the fiber is entangled in various ways to form the structure of the nonwoven wheel.
Practical estimation of measurement noise and flatness deviation on focus variation microscopes
Claudiu L. Giusca, James D. Claverley, Wenjuan Sun, Richard K. Leach (3), Franz Helmli, Mathieu P.J. Chavigner    / Xiangqian Jiang (1)
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.545
Keywords: Surface analysis, Measurement, Flatness deviation
Abstract : Draft ISO specification standards on the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments require a determination of the measurement noise and residual flatness error. However, due to the effect of the instrument transfer function of focus variation microscopes, it is not possible to use every material measure with the ISO-recommended procedure. A practical approach to estimating measurement noise and flatness deviation for focus variation microscopes is presented in this paper and example measurements are given.
A hybrid photonics based sensor for surface measurement
Haydn Martin, Prashant Kumar, Xiangqian Jiang (1)   
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.549
Keywords: Measuring instrument, Interferometry, Hybrid-photonic sensor, Surface and displacement
Abstract : By integrating photonic devices on a silicon wafer containing etched waveguides it is possible to create a complete optical system-on-chip. Such a device can contain all the elements required for implementing a wide range of interferometry techniques including wavelength scanning and phase shifting. In this paper we introduce a hybrid photonics based interferometer for surface metrology applications containing the following 'on-chip' components: tunable laser, phase-shifter, wavelength de-multiplexer, and wavelength encoder. This paper presents the design of the system-on-chip as a miniaturized interferometer. Initial experimental results are shown which prove the potential of this device as a viable surface measurement tool.
Generation of hierarchical micro-structures for anisotropic wetting by elliptical vibration cutting
Ping Guo, Yong Lu, Kornel F. Ehmann, Jian Cao (2)  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.553
Keywords: Surface modification, Micro machining, Anisotropic wetting
Abstract : This paper reports enhanced anisotropic wettability using two-level hierarchical micro-structures. First-order micro-channels with superimposed second-order micro-textures were machined on aluminum surfaces using ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting (EVC). Controllable sinusoidal micro-textures with a wavelength one order of magnitude smaller than the widths of the first-order micro-channels were applied to the surface. Anisotropic wettability was evaluated by water contact angle measurements in two orthogonal directions. The results have shown that the generated hierarchical micro-structures have nearly doubled the anisotropic contact angle in comparison to one-level structures. A relationship between anisotropic wetting characteristics and process parameters is also presented.
Production of novel ceramic porous surfaces tailored for bone tissue engineering
Nikolaos Michailidis (2), Fani Stergioudi, Konstantina Viglaki, Maria Chatzinikolaidou  
STC S,  63/1/2014,  P.557
Keywords: Biomedical surfaces, Powder sintering, Cell growth
Abstract : Moderate toughness and poor biological features of ceramics may hinder their application as modern bio-active implants. The paper presents a new, cost-effective, environmentally-friendly and simple production method of open-cell calcium phosphate (CP) ceramic foams, by employing powders' compaction, dissolution and sintering, aiming at producing highly bio-active 3D surface scaffolds. The process parameters were properly adjusted to optimize the quality and structure of CP foams, and samples with various porosity (60-75 vol%) and pore size (0.28-0.50 mm) were fabricated, characterized and mechanically tested. Cell viability, adhesion and proliferation investigations revealed an excellent potential for application in bone tissue engineering.