CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Closed-Loop Systems to Circular Economy: A Pathway to Environmental Sustainability?
Sami Kara (1), Michael Hauschild (1), John Sutherland (1), Tim McAloone  
STC A,  71/2/2022,  P.505
Keywords: Life cycle, Circular Economy, Absolute sustainability
Abstract : The global society faces an existential threat if it fails to meet current and future material needs of its populations, while staying within the carrying capacity of our planet. An approach that has been put forwards to address this complex challenge is to aim to close our society’s material flows through introduction of a Circular Economy (CE). This paper provides an extensive literature review to understand the evolution of material circularity concepts and strategies, and their potential for increasing material efficiency and reduce environmental impacts towards meeting the material needs of our societies in an environmentally sustainable manner. Based on the review it can be concluded that CE may have a strong potential to help address the challenge. However, this requires broadening the focus of CE from technical and economical to political and socio-cultural dimensions, adopting a whole-systems approach, aiming to redesign economic and social relations to not just reduce the impact humanity has on the environment but actually achieve a balance in humannature relations with a planetary boundary thinking. Pursuing purely technical and economic avenues to implement CE for increasing material circulation and sustainable growth on the foundation of our current linear economic system, will not achieve its full potential. It will not be sustainable but continue to produce the challenges that we currently have.


Process monitoring of machining
R. Teti (1), D. Mourtzis (1), D. D’Addona (2), A. Caggiano (2)  
STC C,  71/2/2022,  P.529
Keywords: Machining, Sensor monitoring, Advanced signal processing
Abstract : This keynote paper mainly focuses on advancements of machining technology and systems for enhanced performance, increased system integration and augmented machine intelligence, critically hinging on new sensors, sensor systems and sensing methodologies being robust, reconfigurable and intelligent, while providing direct adoption and plug-and-play use in industrial practice. One chief novelty is given by the key enabling technologies of Industry 4.0 where integration of sensing systems in manufacturing plants is a cornerstone for transforming conventional manufacturing concepts into digital manufacturing paradigms. Application examples to industrial processes, future challenges and coming trends in machining monitoring are shown.

 STC Dn 

Designing Value-Driven Solutions: The Evolution of Industrial Product-Service Systems
Daniel Brissaud (1), Tomohiko Sakao (2), Andreas Riel (2), John Ahmet Erkoyuncu (2)  
STC Dn,  71/2/2022,  P.553
Keywords: Design, Service, Value creation
Abstract : Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²) have been increasingly researched and practiced in a variety of fields and sectors. Nevertheless, such solutions are not as significantly implemented as expected by the CIRP keynote in 2010: it is not a dominant business of manufacturing companies today despite their economic and environmental advantages. One reason for this delay is assumed to be that the initial efforts were mainly on business and service when design was an afterthought. The promising digital technologies that have become easily implementable in practice will in the next years facilitate design and implementation of IPS² smartly to satisfy users and contribute to sustainability. This keynote analyses literature and practice in the last decade, aiming to propose the main characteristics of IPS² of the future and design processes adequate for IPS². The design process of both production systems for sustainability and high-value systems for sustainable development goals may need to be supported differently than today. The list of recommendations for future research on IPS² design is provided at the end of the paper.


3D bioprinting: materials, processes and applications
Paulo Bartolo (1), Ajay Malshe (1), Eleonora Ferraris (2), Bahattin Koc  
STC E,  71/2/2022,  P.577
Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Biomedical, Tissue Engineering
Abstract : Aging population and new diseases are requiring the development of novel therapeutical strategies. 3D bioprinting an novel application domain of additive manufacturing emerged as a potential transformative strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of 3D bioprinting, discussing in detail key requirements of bio-inks and main materials used to encapsulate cells. Recent advances related to the use of smart materials and the concept of 4D printing is also discussed. Main 3D bioprinting techniques are described in detail and key limitations highlighted. Successful cases, demonstrating the relevance of 3D bioprinting are also presented. Finally, the paper addresses the main research challenges and future perspectives in the field of 3D bioprinting.


Simulation of metal forming – Visualization of invisible phenomena in the digital era
J. Yanagimoto (1), D. Banabic (1), M. Banu, L. Madej (2)  
STC F,  71/2/2022,  P.599
Keywords: Simulation, Metal forming, Modelling, Visualization, Digital twin
Abstract : The simulation of manufacturing processes has significant importance. The research and development of metal forming simulation started in the 1960s from the elastoplastic analysis of a simple plastic deformation, and it now covers a wide range of forming processes. The accuracy and applicability of metal forming simulation have significantly progressed, driven by the development of plasticity theory and numerical methods such as the remeshing technique and contact analysis algorithm. Now the targets of metal forming simulations are undergoing a transition from the macroscale analysis of deforming bodies to coupled analyses of deformations of deforming bodies and tools, and multiscale analyses of microstructure and texture. Past achievements of metal forming simulation show that it has reached the level of ‘visualizing forming phenomena’, but it will continue to evolve in the digital era, impacting the digital society and factories of the future, where machines work autonomously without human intervention. Emergent technologies require advanced materials, augmented reality, and, of course, metal forming simulation. In this paper, we reinforce the role of simulation as a means of performing computational (virtual) experiments and as a tool for the high-fidelity numerical visualization and quantification of unknown, unmeasurable, and invisible phenomena in formed components and their assembly. We will also discuss simulation–machine interactions, such as online simulation with process operation, to realize the triad of ‘process operation – data – simulation’ in the near future.


Advances in Grinding Tools and Abrasives
Anthony Beaucamp (2), Benjamin Kirsch, Wule Zhu  
STC G,  71/2/2022,  P.623
Keywords: Grinding wheel, Sustainable machining, Smart tools
Abstract : Because of their many applications, including automotive, aeronautics, optics, and so forth, demand for grinding tools sees unabated growth. But the energy and resource intensive nature of their manufacture leads to questions of sustainability. This paper details how recent developments in basic tool technology (structure, binder, abrasives) is increasing tool and abrasive resilience while reducing production inputs. The advent of smart grinding tools involving aspects of surface engineering, process hybridization, and process monitoring is also discussed. The paper concludes with an outlook of further energy savings, tool recycling and uses of additive manufacturing with the aim of achieving long-term sustainability.


Mechanical interfaces in machine tools
Erhan Budak (1), Atsushi Matsubara (1), Alkan Donmez (2), Jokin Munoa (1)  
STC M,  71/2/2022,  P.647
Keywords: Machine tool, Structure, Mechanical interfaces
Abstract : Machine tools involve various mechanical interfaces in different forms and styles, which affect performance significantly in terms of rigidity, thermal stability, precision, and accuracy. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and future trends in machine tool structural interfaces. The main concepts, challenges, and improvements regarding mechanical and thermal characteristics, geometric accuracy and precision, and wear and failure of machine tool interfaces are presented. Advanced methods for modeling static, dynamic, thermal, and geometrical behavior of mechanical interfaces are presented with examples. Furthermore, typical wear and failure mechanisms and available solutions and health monitoring techniques are covered.


Daydreaming Factories
Aydin Nassehi (1), Marcello Colledani (1), Botond Kádár (1), Eric Lutters (1)  
STC O,  71/2/2022,  P.671
Keywords: Production, Synthesis, Domain Randomization, Industrial Revolution
Abstract : Optimisation of factories, a cornerstone of production engineering for the past half century, relies on formulating the challenges with limited degrees of freedom. In this paper, technological advances are reviewed to propose a “daydreaming” framework for factories that use their cognitive capacity for looking into the future or “foresighting”. Assessing and learning from the possible eventualities enable breakthroughs with many degrees of freedom and make daydreaming factories antifragile. In these factories with augmented and reciprocal learning and foresighting processes, revolutionary reactions to external and internal stimuli are unnecessary and industrial co-evolution of people, processes and products will replace industrial revolutions.


Advances in the metrological traceability and performance of X-ray computed tomography
Wim Dewulf (1), Harald Bosse (3), Simone Carmignato (1), Richard Leach (1)  
STC P,  71/2/2022,  P.693
Keywords: X-ray, Metrology, Traceability
Abstract : X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is increasingly being used for evaluating quality and conformance of complex products, including assemblies and additively manufactured parts. The metrological performance and traceability of XCT nevertheless remains an important research area that is reviewed in this paper. The error sources influencing XCT measurement results are discussed, along with related qualification, calibration and optimization procedures. Moreover, progress on performance verification testing and on the determination of task-specific measurement uncertainty is covered. Results of interlaboratory comparisons are summarized and performance in various dimensional measurement fields is illustrated. Conclusions and an outlook for future research activities are also provided.


The Implication and Evaluation of Geometrical Imperfections on Manufactured Surfaces
B. Mullany (1), E. Savio (1), H. Haitjema (1), R. Leach (1)  
STC S,  71/2/2022,  P.717
Keywords: Defect, Surface, Machine Vision
Abstract : This paper takes the broad topic of geometrical surface imperfections on manufactured surfaces and provides an overview of how they affect component functionality and how they may be detected and classified as defects or not. The presented overview considers both human visual inspection and machine vision-based approaches along with their evolving roles. Of note is that the paper takes a highly granular field consisting of customized solutions for customized applications and frames the discussion around fundamental considerations for each of the tasks; search/acquisition, sensing/detection, processing, classification and decision. Future trends and areas still requiring attention are highlighted.