CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Electronic Module Assembly
Jörg Franke (2), Lihui Wang (1), Karlheinz Bock, Jürgen Wilde  
STC A,  70/2/2021,  P.471
Keywords: Joining, Assembly, Electronic
Abstract : Electronics is the vital basis for innovations and the essential enabler for global trends like connectivity, electro mobility and renewable energies. These applications require high performance and reliability of the electronic modules. Their assembly combines very heterogeneous process chains like remarkable productive and diminutive surface mount technology (SMT), powerful and robust power electronic interconnection techniques, as well as pioneering reel-to-reel based organic electronic printing. After briefly outlining the enormous global economic impact of electronic modules, this paper presents the state of the art of electronic module assembly including substrate materials, electronic components, packaging and assembly processes as well as quality and reliability testing methods.


Structured and Textured Cutting Tool Surfaces for Machining Applications
Tugrul Özel, Dirk Biermann (1), Toshiyuki Enomoto (2), Paul Mativenga (2)  
STC C,  70/2/2021,  P.495
Keywords: Machining, Texture, Cutting Tool
Abstract : In the past few decades, there has been considerable advancement in developing and testing structured and textured cutting tools for different machining operations. This paper not only presents a review of the state-of-the-art in manufacturing processes to structure and texture surfaces of cutting tools for machining applications but also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of utilizing structured or textured rake and flank faces as well as other important functional surfaces of cutting tools. This includes an assessment of the relevant texture geometries and microscale structures and their applicability and/or limitations for the improved chip material flow and contact at the chip-tool interface, reduced forces, dynamic deflections, and friction, improved anti-adhesion and tool wear, and enhanced debris management, lubricant, and coolant utilization. This manuscript includes contributions from many research groups in academia who closely work with industry and the content presented herein is expected to provide an organized and comprehensive narrative on current advances, capabilities, and challenges in developing and implementing optimum texture and structure design on cutting tool surfaces with some guidance for future directions.

 STC Dn 

Coevolution of digitalisation, organisations and Product Development Cycle
Lionel Roucoules (2), Nabil Anwer (2)  
STC Dn,  70/2/2021,  P.519
Keywords: Computer Aided Design (CAD), Design, Digital Transformation
Abstract : Over the past 70 years, product design has undergone many important changes due to the impact of contemporary digital technologies (i.e. digital design). To support digital design and information flow throughout the product lifecycle, the digital-driven technologies currently in use rely on the evolution of CAD and PLM systems to address new design and manufacturing challenges generated by the new era of 4.0 digital transformation. This paper will discuss the past and present coevolution and shortcomings within industrial organisations,the digitaltechnologies employed in the product development cycle and will illustrate the current challenges and future prospects of the digital thread for design.


Ultrafast Laser Manufacturing: from physics to industrial applications
Leonardo Orazi (2), Luca Romoli (2), Michael Schmidt (2), Lin Li (1)  
STC E,  70/2/2021,  P.543
Keywords: Laser, Laser processing, Ultrafast optics
Abstract : Modern ultrafast lasers are enabling better operative performances in micro and nano-fabrications of materials, benefited from their ease of use, robustness, and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to bridge the gap between the knowledge of ultrafast optics and the modern industrial applications. The paper introduces main phenomena in ultrafast laser-matter interactions by reviewing relevant theoretical models and simulation techniques. The operation of ultrafast lasers is based on nonlinear optics phenomena, fully described only in the framework of quantum-mechanics. Current trends in the development of modern ultrafast system are given. It also presents a review of the latest advances in ultrafast laser-based manufacturing processes, some of the most interesting industrial applications, and a discussion on future trends and challenges.


Forming of Metal-Based Composite Parts
Stefania Bruschi (1), Jian Cao (1), Marion Merklein (1), Jun Yanagimoto (1)  
STC F,  70/2/2021,  P.567
Keywords: Composite, Metal, Forming
Abstract : In the last few decades, metal-based composites and related manufacturing methods have attained significant research attention thanks to the possibilities they offer to tailor both the material properties and the part in-service performances. A wide range of metal-based composite parts are available for commercial applications since more affordable and robust manufacturing processes and quality control techniques have recently allowed overcoming many challenging technological issues. The paper aims at describing the forming processes applied to metal-based composites, with particular emphasis on the process features, part obtainable characteristics, and modelling issues for a convincing design and optimization of the process itself. The most recent progresses and challenges are illustrated in detail, including innovative materials and processes that are emerging to answer the requirements of advanced engineering applications as well as new modelling techniques and current approaches to face economic and environmental issues.


Grinding and fine finishing of future automotive powertrain components
Peter Krajnik (2), Fukuo Hashimoto (1), Bernhard Karpuschewski (1), Eraldo Jannone da Silva (2), Dragos Axinte (1)  
STC G,  70/2/2021,  P.589
Keywords: Grinding, Finishing, Automotive
Abstract : The automotive industry is undergoing a major transformation driven by regulations and a fast-paced electrification. A critical analysis of technological trends and associated requirements for major automotive powertrain components is carried out in close collaboration with industry – covering the perspectives of OEMs, suppliers, and machine builders. The main focus is to review the state of the art with regard to grinding, dressing, texturing and fine-finishing technologies. A survey of research papers and patents is accompanied by case studies that provide further insights into the production value chain. Finally, key industrial and research challenges are summarized.


Noise and Vibrations in Machine Tools
Konrad Wegener (1), Friedrich Bleicher (2), Uwe Heisel (1), Hans-Werner Hoffmeister (3), Hans-Christian Möhring (2)  
STC M,  70/2/2021,  P.611
Keywords: Noise , Noise mitigation, Sound measuring
Abstract : Mechanical manufacturing processes as well as the respective production machinery is noisy. The noise always stems from transient forces that excite the structure to vibrations, which emits due to vibrations on the surface sound waves into the environment. Noise emission is today considered as quality defect of machinery and thus methods and means are sought to mitigate the noise emission to a level considered as being compatible to human operators. On the other hand as the noise origin is the process itself, the emitted noise has a signal content, which directly indicates the status of the process and sometimes also the health state of the machine and its elements. Noise reduction today is still fairly experience based, which requires to generate a good understanding on noise generation, noise transmission and noise radiation which is discussed in this paper. Measurement of noise and its analysis is indispensable for the traceback to the origin to focus the countermeasures but also for revealing the signal content out of the sound waves. Noise prediction is still at the threshold of industrial application, but will in future play a major role for including noise topics into the design from the beginning and not only as corrective measures after the machine is built. Available simulation tools are presented. The largest progress in this respect stems from room acoustics and automotive industry, where the requirements are much stricter than in the manufacturing environment. Ways and achievements in the utilization of noise signals for process and machine health monitoring will be presented. The industry seeks here for broad band sensors, able to carry a lot of different and easy to retrieve signals to reduce the amount of additional sensors. Typical standards today collect countermeasures, being applied for spreading the knowledge generated for intuitive approaches. The paper also shows future trends and developments and the research required in that field.


Evolution and future of Manufacturing Systems
Hoda A. ElMaraghy (1), Laszlo Monostori (1), Guenther Schuh (1), Waguih ElMaraghy (1)  
STC O,  70/2/2021,  P.635
Keywords: Manufacturing systems, Sustainable development, Cognitive adaptability
Abstract : The evolution of manufacturing systems, influenced by changes along four axes - products, technology, business strategies and production paradigms - is presented. Adoption of human-centric decision making in meshed collaboration with intelligent systems is examined. Implications and preparedness for the shift towards more responsive, intelligent adaptive systems are reviewed. Research and industrial use cases are presented. A vision for the new future Adaptive Cognitive Manufacturing System (ACMS) paradigm and its characteristics, drivers and enablers are articulated highlighting the digital and cognitive transformations. Perspectives and insights are offered for future research, education, and work to realize the evolution of manufacturing systems.


Scalability of Precision Design Principles for Machines and Instruments
Jose Antonio Yagüe-Fabra (2), Wei Gao (1), Andreas Archenti (2), Edward Morse (2), Alkan Donmez (2)  
STC P,  70/2/2021,  P.659
Keywords: Precision, System, Scalability
Abstract : The implementation of precision engineering principles in the design of precision systems is fundamental to achieve high accuracy. Although these principles may be independent of the system working range, their implementation is not. The working range, the accuracy, and the load of the system limit, for instance, the selection of materials, the structural design, or the positioning system. This article analyzes the applicability of precision engineering design principles depending on the working range of the system in order to establish their scalability or lack of it in small, medium, and large range machines and instruments.


Feature-based characterisation of surface topography and its application
Xiangqian Jiang (1), Nicola Senin, Paul James Scott, François Blateyron (3)  
STC S,  70/2/2021,  P.681
Keywords: Surfaces, Micro structure, Feature-based Characterisation
Abstract : This keynote paper gives an overview of emerging technologies of feature-based characterisation, for surface topographies having features. It is complementary to conventional surface characterisation using texture field parameters. An original concept, the feature spectrum is proposed to organise surfaces, in order to help select the appropriate characterisation for different types of surface topographies and to achieve a more direct relationship between characterisation, manufacturing process and surface function. The keynote paper focuses on fundamentals and the state of the art for feature-based characterisation technologies. Applications of feature-based characterisation are illustrated and discussed. Guidelines for future industrial applications are laid out, and considerations for future challenges are addressed.