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CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Innovative Control of Assembly Systems and Lines
J. Krüger (2), L. Wang (1), A. Verl (2),T. Bauernhansl, E. Carpanzano (2), S. Makris (2), J. Fleischer (1), G. Reinhart (1), J. Franke (2), S. Pellegrinelli  
STC A,  66/2/2017,  P.707
Keywords: Control, Robotics, Cloud Technology
Abstract : The increasing demand for flexibility and reconfigurability of assembly lines generates new challenges for the control of these lines and their subsystems such as robots, grippers, conveyors or automated guided vehicles. Also new requirements for their interaction between each other and the environment as well as with humans arise. On the other hand the rapid change of information and communication technology opens new potentials for innovative control. Due to the high degree of interconnection between controllers, actuators and sensors, the classical automation pyramid is replaced by networked structures with a higher degree of flexibility but also higher complexity. This trend is supported by the ability to collect and process data within cloud environments, the rapid increase of computational power of decentralized and embedded controllers and the high potential of machine learning for automation. This keynote gives an overview of innovative approaches in ICT and robotics for flexible control and automation of assembly lines and systems.


Advances in Material and Friction data for Modelling of Metal Machining
Shreyes N. Melkote (2), Wit Grzesik (2), Jose Outeiro (2), Joel Rech, Volker Schulze (2), Helmi Attia (1), Pedro-J. Arrazola (2), Rachid M’Saoubi (1), Christopher Saldana  
STC C,  66/2/2017,  P.731
Keywords: Machining, Modelling, Friction
Abstract : This paper reviews recent advances in constitutive and friction data and models for simulation of metal machining. Phenomenological and physically-based constitutive models commonly used in machining simulations are presented and discussed. Other topics include experimental techniques for acquiring data necessary to identify the constitutive model parameters, and recent advances in modelling of tool-workpiece friction and experimental techniques to acquire friction data under machining conditions. Additionally, thermo-physical properties for thermal modelling of the machining process, and microstructure data for the chip and workpiece together with relevant experimental methods are discussed. Future research needs in each of the focused areas are highlighted.

 STC Cross-STC 

Laser Based Additive Manufacturing in Industry and Academia
Michael Schmidt (2), Marion Merklein (1), David Bourell (2), Dimitri Dimitrov (3), Tino Hausotte, Konrad Wegener (2), Ludger Overmeyer (2), Frank Vollertsen (1), Gideon N. Levy (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  66/2/2017,  P.561
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Laser, Production
Abstract : Additive manufacturing (AM) is pushing towards industrial applications. But despite good sales of AM machines, there are still several challenges hindering a broad economic use of AM. This keynote paper starts with an overview over laser based additive manufacturing with comment s on the main steps necessary to build parts to introduce the complexity of the whole process chain. Then from a manufacturing process oriented viewpoint it identifies these barriers for Laser Beam Melting (LBM) using results of a round robin test inside CIRP and the work of other research groups. It shows how those barriers may be overcome and points out research topics necessary to be addressed in the near future.
Design, Management and Control of Demanufacturing and Remanufacturing Systems
Tullio Tolio (1), Alain Bernard (1), Marcello Colledani (2), Sami Kara (1), Guenther Seliger (1), Joost Duflou (1), Olga Battaia, Shozo Takata (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  66/2/2017,  P.585
Keywords: Sustainable development, System, Circular economy
Abstract : In the recent years, increasing attention has been posed towards enhancing the sustainability of manufacturing processes by reducing the consumption of resources and key materials, the energy consumption and the environmental footprint, while also increasing companies' competitiveness in global market contexts. De- and remanufacturing includes the set of technologies/systems, tools and knowledge-based methods to recover and reuse functions and materials from industrial waste and post-consumer products, under a Circular Economy perspective. This new paradigm can potentially support the sustainability challenges in strategic manufacturing sectors, such as aeronautics, automotive, electronics, consumer goods, and mechatronics. A new generation of smart de- and remanufacturing systems showing higher levels of automation, flexibility and adaptability to changing material mixtures and values is emerging and there is a need for systematizing the existing approaches to support their operations. Such innovative de-and remanufacturing system design, management and control approaches as well as advanced technological enablers have a key role to support the Circular Economy paradigm. This paper revises system level problems, methods and tools to support this paradigm and highlights the main challenges and opportunities towards a new generation of advanced de-and remanufacturing systems.

 STC Dn 

Design for Reduced Resource Consumption during the Use Phase of Products
Li H. Shu (1), Joost Duflou (1), Christoph Herrmann(2), Tomohiko Sakao (2), Yoshiki Shimomura (1), Yannick De Bock, Jayesh Srivastava  
STC Dn,  66/2/2017,  P.635
Keywords: Sustainable development, Human aspect, Pro-environmental behavior
Abstract : Much work on sustainable design has focused on product manufacture/assembly and end of life. Gains in products' technical efficiency address the use phase, but how these products are used clearly affects resource consumption. There are two main approaches to design interventions to reduce resource consumption during product life. Firstly, interventions aim to change user behavior, through information and feedback, as well as physical product affordances abstracted from lead users to guide or steer users toward the desired behavior. Secondly, automatic adjustment of product systems performance levels based on personal user profiles and anticipated usage is implemented using artificial intelligence techniques.


Materials for Additive Manufacturing
David Bourell (2), Jean-Pierre Kruth (1), Ming Leu (1), Gideon Levy (1), David Rosen, Allison M. Beese, Adam Clare  
STC E,  66/2/2017,  P.659
Keywords: Manufacturing, Material, Microstructure
Abstract : Critical to the selection requirements for Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the need for appropriate materials. Materials requirements for AM include the ability to produce the feedstock in a form amenable to the specific AM process, suitable processing of the material by AM, capability to be acceptably post-processed to enhance geometry and properties, and manifestation of necessary performance characteristics in service. As AM has matured, specific classes of material have become associated with specific AM processes and applications. This paper gathers this information for each of the seven categories of ISO/ASTM AM categories. Polymers, metals, ceramics and composites are considered. Microstructural features affecting AM part properties are listed. Service properties of AM parts are described, including physical, mechanical, optical and electrical properties. An additive manufacturability index is proposed.


Hot stamping of ultra-high strength steel parts
K.I. Mori (1), P.F. Bariani (1), B.-A. Behrens (2), A. Brosius, S. Bruschi (1), T. Maeno, M. Merklein (1), J. Yanagimoto (1)  
STC F,  66/2/2017,  P.755
Keywords: Hot stamping, Sheet metal, Forming
Abstract : The demand for new processes to produce high strength parts, under appropriate cost and productivity, has grown with weight reduction and crash safety improvements in automobile design. The hot stamping processes of quenchable steel sheets potentially offer not only small forming load and high formability, but also high strength and no springback by die quenching. This paper aims to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in such hot stamping processes, including quenchability, formability, heating and cooling approaches and lubrication. The paper also includes a description of the mechanism of formability and quenching, tailoring, analysis of hot stamping processes and applicability.


Recent Developments in Grinding Machines
Konrad Wegener (2), Friedrich Bleicher (2), Peter Krajnik (2), Hans-Werner Hoffmeister (3), Christian Brecher (1)  
STC G,  66/2/2017,  P.779
Keywords: Grinding machine, Expert system, Compensation
Abstract : Grinding is often the final step in the process/manufacturing chain, meaning that no subsequent post-grinding correction of the surface and geometry is performed. This imposes strong requirements on grinding-machine technology and on the understanding of this finalising process. While grinding has unique capabilities it is nevertheless in competition with other machining processes. The evolution of grinding machines is driven by process requirements like accuracy, MRR, and subsurface integrity. The regeneration of the tool on the machine with dressing devices is to be regarded as unique for grinding machines, hence a grinding machine always runs two separate processes. The high accuracy of grinding has, in fact, been an obstacle to simply adopting developments from other machining processing. Also, a lack of experienced machinists and a general trend towards individualized products and one-piece flow has required a transitioning from an experience-based approach to a science-based approach. Development is further driven by market demands, such as cost-reduction in terms of CAPEX, footprint, TCO versus quality, and throughput, which affect business models and the machine's design and construction. Moreover, the current mega-trends - such as resource efficiency, individualization, ergonomics and Industry 4.0 - are changing the appearance of grinding machines, which is also affected by the availability of new technologies, especially sensors, actuators and the control or machine intelligence. This paper reviews the most-relevant technologies, assesses their impact and the readiness of industry to adopt them, identifies the still-open issues, and concludes with future research requirements.


Fluid Elements in Machine Tools
Konrad Wegener (2), Joseph Mayr, Marion Merklein (1), Bernd-Arno Behrens (2), Tojiro Aoyama (1), Matej Sulitka (3), Jürgen Fleischer (1), Peter Groche (1), Bilgin Kaftanoglu (1), Nicolas Jochum (3), Hans-Christian Möhring (2)  
STC M,  66/2/2017,  P.611
Keywords: Machine tool, Fluid, Performance
Abstract : Fluids play a major role for production machinery and serve for very different tasks as lubricating, tempering, cleaning, transmitting force and energy. Due to maintenance requirements and the environmental impact their utilization is under discussion and alternatives are looked for. In this paper an overview of the latest research activities in the field of fluidic elements on machine tools is presented. The topic of the paper includes an overview of the fluids used in machine tools, the usage of fluidic elements, supply and treatment units, and their influence on machine tools performance. A link to fluidic media on energy efficiency is given. Research challenges in order to increase the performance of machine tools are discussed. The paper excludes metal working fluids, which have been treated in [33].


Learning Factories for Future Oriented Research and Education in Manufacturing
Eberhard Abele (1), George Chryssolouris (1), Wilfried Sihn (1), Joachim Metternich, Hoda ElMaraghy (1), Günther Seliger (1), Gunilla Sivard, Waguih ElMaraghy (1), Vera Hummel, Michael Tisch, Stefan Seifermann  
STC O,  66/2/2017,  P.803
Keywords: Factory, Human aspect, Learning factory
Abstract : Learning factories present a promising environment for education, training and research, especially in manufacturing related areas which are a main driver for wealth creation in any nation. While numerous learning factories have been built in industry and academia in the last decades, a comprehensive scientific overview of the topic is still missing. This paper intends to close this gap by establishing the state of the art of learning factories. The motivations, historic background, and the didactic foundations of learning factories are outlined. Definitions of the term learning factory and the corresponding morphological model are provided. An overview of existing learning factory approaches in industry and academia is provided, showing the broad range of different applications and varying contents. The state of the art of learning factories curricula design and their use to enhance learning and research as well as potentials and limitations are presented. Conclusions and an outlook on further research priorities are offered.


Contributions of Precision Engineering to the revision of the SI
Harald Bosse (3), Horst Kunzmann (1), John Pratt (3), Stephan Schlamminger(3), Ian Robinson (3), Michael de Podesta (3), Paul Shore (3), Alessandro Balsamo (1), Paul Morantz  
STC P,  66/2/2017,  P.827
Keywords: Metrology, System, Revised SI
Abstract : All measurements performed in science and industry are based on the International System of Units, the SI. It has been proposed to revise the SI following an approach which was implemented for the redefinition of the unit of length, the metre, namely to define the SI units by fixing the numerical values of so-called defining constants, including c, h, e, k and NA. We will discuss the reasoning behind the revision, which will likely be put into force in 2018. Precision engineering was crucial to achieve the required small measurement uncertainties and agreement of measurement results for the defining constants.


Nanomanufacturing - perspective and applications
F.Z Fang (1), X.D. Zhang, W. Gao (1), Y.B. Guo (2), G. Byrne (1), H.N. Hansen (1)  
STC S,  66/2/2017,  P.683
Keywords: Nanomanufacturing, Manufacturing, Metrology
Abstract : Nanomanufacturing involves scaled-up, reliable, and cost-effective manufacturing of nanoscale materials, structures, devices, and systems. Nanomanufacturing methods can be classified into top-down and bottom-up approaches, including additive, subtractive, and replication/mass conservation processes. These include a cluster of various techniques such as nanomachining, nanofabrication, and nanometrology to produce nanotechnology components and conduct evaluation. This paper mainly focuses on the manufacturing methods for complex shapes or structures, such as textures on curves and hierarchical structures, and outlines the research perspectives and the current application status of nanomanufacturing fundamentals and key technologies.