CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




The Role of Manufacturing in Affecting the Social Dimension of Sustainability
John W. Sutherland (1), Justin S. Richter, Margot J. Hutchins, David Dornfeld (1), Rachel Dzombak, Jennifer Mangold, Stefanie Robinson, Michael Z. Hauschild (1), Alexandra Bonou, Paul Schönsleben (2), Felix Friemann  
STC A,  65/2/2016,  P.689
Keywords: Lifecycle, Human aspect, Social sustainability
Abstract : Manufacturing affects all three dimensions of sustainability: economy, environment, and society. This paper addresses the last of these dimensions. It explores social impacts identified by national level social indicators, frameworks, and principles. The effects of manufacturing on social performance are framed for different stakeholder groups with associated social needs. Methodology development as well as various challenges for social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) are further examined. Efforts to integrate social and another dimension of sustainability are considered, with attention to globalization challenges, including offshoring and reshoring. The paper concludes with a summary of key takeaways and promising directions for future work.


Cryogenic Manufacturing Processes
I.S. Jawahir (1), H. Attia (1), D. Biermann (2), J. Duflou (1), F. Klocke (1), D. Meyer, S.T. Newman (2), F. Pusavec, M. Putz (2), J. Rech, V. Schulze (2), D. Umbrello (2)  
STC C,  65/2/2016,  P.713
Keywords: Cryogenic machining, Surface integrity, Modeling
Abstract : Cryogenically-assisted manufacturing processes are emerging as environmentally-benign, toxic-free, hazardless operations, producing functionally-superior products. This paper presents an overview of major cryogenic manufacturing processes summarizing the state-of-the-art and significant developments during the last few decades. It begins with a summary of historic perspectives, including definitions, scope, and proceeds to analysis of process mechanics and material performance covering tribological and thermo-mechanical interactions, followed by surface integrity, product quality and performance in cryogenic manufacturing. Process analysis and applications includes machining, forming and grinding. Economic, safety and health issues are then discussed. Finally, progress in developing predictive performance models and future outlook are presented.

 STC Cross-STC 

Process Chains for High-Precision Components with Micro-Scale Features
E. Uhlmann (1), B. Mullany (2), D. Biermann (2), K.P. Rajurkar (1), T. Hausottee, E. Brinksmeier (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  65/2/2016,  P.549
Keywords: Micro machining, Manufacturing network, Process chains
Abstract : This keynote paper addresses the manufacturing of high-precision components with micro-scale features, and the associated process chain considerations. Three workpiece classifications as well as a Micro-Production Process Chain (MPPC) model are defined. A review of capabilities and advances in micro-manufacturing technologies, metrology, and equipment demonstrates increased versatility across varied applications, while also highlighting limitations. Challenges in the development of process chains are presented using results of the MPPC program of the Collaborative Working Group on Micro-Production Engineering. Finally, a guide for machining high-precision components with micro-scale features in process chains is given with respect to machine tools, tools, technology and environmental conditions.
Continuous maintenance and the future - foundations and technological challenges
R. Roy (1), R. Stark (2), K. Tracht (2), S. Takata (1), M. Mori (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  65/2/2016,  P.667
Keywords: Maintenance, Lifecycle, Service
Abstract : High value and long life products require continuous maintenance throughout their life cycle to achieve required performance with optimum through-life cost. This paper presents foundations and technologies required to offer the maintenance service. Component and system level degradation science, assessment and modelling along with life cycle 'big data' analytics are the two most important knowledge and skill base required for the continuous maintenance. Advanced computing and visualisation technologies will improve efficiency of the maintenance and reduce through-life cost of the product. Future of continuous maintenance within the Industry 4.0 context also identifies the role of IoT, standards and cyber security.

 STC Dn 

Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, Opportunities, Considerations and Constraints
Mary Kathryn Thompson, Giovanni Moroni (2), Tom Vaneker (2), Georges Fadel, R. Ian Campbell, Ian Gibson, Alain Bernard (1), Joachim Schulz (3), Patricia Graf, Bhrigu Ahuja, Filomeno Martina  
STC Dn,  65/2/2016,  P.737
Keywords: Design, Manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing
Abstract : The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology has lagged behind. This paper presents the major opportunities, constraints, and economic considerations for Design for Additive Manufacturing. It explores issues related to design and redesign for direct and indirect AM production. It also highlights key industrial applications, outlines future challenges, and identifies promising directions for research and the exploitation of AM's full potential in industry.


Shaping of engineering ceramics by electro, chemical and physical processes
Eleonora Ferraris, Jef Vleugels, Yuebin Guo (2), David Bourell (2), Jean Pierre Kruth (1), Bert Lauwers (1)  
STC E,  65/2/2016,  P.761
Keywords: Ceramic, Electrical Discharge Machining, Rapid Prototyping
Abstract : Thanks to the favourable combination of outstanding mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, engineering ceramics, such as oxides, carbides and nitrides find widespread applications in the modern industry. Nevertheless, their extensive use is still hindered by the implementation of labour and cost intensive manufacturing chain which poses various technological challenges. Many electro, chemical and physical shaping techniques have been investigated in the recent years in order to offer efficient alternatives, and there are numerous experimental evidences available in the literature. With the ambitious to provide a comprehensive overview of the current technological trends and main perspectives, this work offers an extensive survey of the available data in shaping of engineering ceramics by electro, chemical and physical processes. Focus is paid on experimental research on processes, as for electrical discharge machining, additive manufacturing, and laser beam machining. The considered literature data are going back to the early 80’s.


Closed-loop control of product properties in metal forming
J.M. Allwood (1), S.R. Duncan, J. Cao (1), P. Groche (1), G. Hirt (2), B. Kinsey, T. Kuboki, M. Liewald (3), A. Sterzing, A.E. Tekkaya (1)  
STC F,  65/2/2016,  P.573
Keywords: Metal Forming, Product Properties, Control
Abstract : Metal forming processes operate in conditions of uncertainty due to parameter variation and imperfect understanding. This uncertainty leads to a degradation of product properties from customer specifications, which can be reduced by the use of closed-loop control. A framework of analysis is presented for understanding closed-loop control in metal forming, allowing an assessment of current and future developments in actuators, sensors and models. This leads to a survey of current and emerging applications across a broad spectrum of metal forming processes, and a discussion of likely developments.


Abrasive fine-finishing technology
Fukuo Hashimoto (1), Hitomi Yamaguchi (2), Peter Krajnik (2), Konrad Wegener (2), Rahul Chaudhari, Hans-Werner Hoffmeister, Friedrich Kuster (3)  
STC G,  65/2/2016,  P.597
Keywords: Abrasive, Finishing, Surface integrity
Abstract : Abrasive fine-finishing technology is often applied as a final finishing process, and applying the right technology is crucial to obtaining the desired performance of functions such as fatigue life. This paper begins with classifications of the technology along with fundamentals and brief histories of the individual methods. The material removal mechanisms, specific energies, and finishing characteristics of the various technologies are summarized giving assessments of the surfaces created by them. Guidelines developed for selecting the appropriate methods, and case studies illustrate the effectiveness of various methods. This paper ends with a discussion of the future prospects of the technology.


Chatter suppression techniques in metal cutting
J. Munoa (2), X. Beudaert (3), Z. Dombovari, Y. Altintas (1), E. Budak (1), C. Brecher (1), G. Stepan (2)  
STC M,  65/2/2016,  P.785
Keywords: Chatter, vibrations, mechatronics
Abstract : The self-excited vibration, called chatter, is one of the main limitations in metal removal processes. Chatter may spoil the surface of the part and can also cause large reduction in the life of the different components of the machine tool including the cutting tool itself. During the last 60 years, several techniques have been proposed to suppress chatter. This keynote paper presents a critical review of the different chatter suppression techniques. Process solutions with design and control approaches are compiled to provide a complete view of the available methods to stabilize the cutting process. The evolution of each technique is described remarking the most important milestones in research and the corresponding industrial application. The selection of the most appropriate technique for each specific chatter problem is also discussed considering various aspects of machining processes.


Cyber-physical systems in manufacturing
L. Monostori (1), B. Kádár (2), T. Bauernhansl, S. Kondoh (2), S. Kumara (1), G. Reinhart (1), O. Sauer (3), G. Schuh (1), W. Sihn (1), K. Ueda (1)  
STC O,  65/2/2016,  P.621
Keywords: Manufacturing systems, cyber-physical systems, distributed systems
Abstract : One of the most significant advances in the development of computer science, information and communication technologies is represented by the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). They are systems of collaborating computational entities which are in intensive connection with the surrounding physical world and its on-going processes, providing and using, at the same time, data-accessing and data-processing services available on the Internet. Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS), relying on the latest, and the foreseeable further developments of computer science, information and communication technologies on one hand, and of manufacturing science and technology, on the other, may lead to the 4th Industrial Revolution, frequently noted as Industrie 4.0. The paper underlines that there are significant roots in general - and in particular to the CIRP community - which point towards CPPS. Expectations towards research in and implementation of CPS and CPPS are outlined and some case studies are introduced. Related new R&D challenges are highlighted.


Advances in Large Scale Metrology - Review and Future Trends
R. Schmitt (2), M. Peterek, E. Morse, W. Knapp (1), M. Galetto, F. Härtig, G. Goch (1), B. Hughes, A. Forbes, W.T. Estler (1)  
STC P,  65/2/2016,  P.643
Keywords: Metrology, Modeling, Large-Scale Metrology
Abstract : The field of large scale metrology has been studied extensively for many decades and represents the combination and competition of topics as diverse as geodesy and laboratory calibration. A primary reason that large scale metrology continues to represent the research frontier is that technological advances introduced and perfected at a conventional scale face additional challenges which increase non-linearly with size. This necessitates new ways of considering the entire measuring process, resulting in the application of concepts such as virtual measuring processes and cyber-physical systems. This paper reports on the continuing evolution of large scale metrology.


Surface Modification by Machine Hammer Peening and Burnishing
V. Schulze (2), F. Bleicher (3), P. Groche (1), Y.B. Guo (2), Y.S. Pyune  
STC S,  65/2/2016,  P.809
Keywords: Surface integrity, Surface modification, Guided tools
Abstract : A wide range of surface modification processes has been developed over the past decades. Beside the well‐established processes such as shot peening, there are other emerging surface modification processes such as machine hammer peening with a potential of applications that still needs to be evaluated. Therefore, all surface modification processes using guided tools with periodic or continuous contact to the workpiece are compared in this paper. After a classification of the processes, the paper presents a systematic description by comparing the different technologies and it explains the proposed standardized nomenclature. It identifies the relevant physical mechanisms of the surface modifications processes and it compares the influences on surface roughness, residual stresses, work hardening and microstructure. One section is dedicated to the need of an accompanying quality assurance. Furthermore, the capabilities of different process simulation approaches are analyzed with respect to process mechanisms and the resulting surface layer characteristics. The service performance such as fatigue life, corrosion resistance, friction and wear are discussed based on best practice results. Finally, the paper discusses the actual and potential applications of surface modification processes: surface strengthening, post welding treatments, smoothing of tools and molds as well as surface structuring and embedding of coating materials.