CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Joining of Dissimilar Materials
K. Martinsen (3), S.J. Hu (1), B.E. Carlson  
STC A,  64/2/2015,  P.679
Keywords: Joining, Dissimilar materials, Modelling and testing
Abstract : Emerging trends in manufacturing such as light weighting, increased performance and functionality increases the use of multi-material, hybrid structures and thus the need for joining of dissimilar materials. The properties of the different materials are jointly utilised to achieve product performance. The joining processes can, on the other hand be challenging due to the same different properties. This paper reviews and summarizes state of the art research in joining dissimilar materials. Current and emerging joining technologies are reviewed according to the mechanisms of joint formation, i.e.; mechanical, chemical, thermal, or hybrid processes. Methods for process selection are described and future challenges for research on joining dissimilar materials are summarized.


High performance cutting of advanced aerospace alloys and composite materials
Rachid M’Saoubi (1), Dragos Axinte (1), Sein Leung Soo (2), Christoph Nobel, Helmi Attia (1), Gregor Kappmeyer (3), Serafettin Engin(3), Wei-Ming Sim (3)   
STC C,  64/2/2015,  P.557
Keywords: Machinability, Composites, Aerospace alloys
Abstract : This paper presents an overview of the recent advances in high performance cutting of aerospace alloys and composite currently used in aeroengine and aerostructure applications. Progress in cutting tool development and its impact tool wear and surface integrity characteristics of difficult to machine materials such as nickel based alloys, titanium and composites is presented. Further, advances in cutting technologies are discussed, focusing on the role of hybrid machining processes and cooling strategies (MQL, high pressure coolant, cryogenic) on machining performance. Finally, industrial perspectives are provided in the context of machining specific components where future challenges are discussed.

 STC Cross-STC 

Metalworking Fluids - Mechanisms and Performance
E. Brinksmeier (1), D. Meyer, A.G. Huesmann-Cordes, C. Herrmann (2)  
STC Cross-STC,  64/2/2015,  P.605
Keywords: Mechanism, Performance, Metalworking Fluids
Abstract : In various manufacturing processes, metalworking fluids (MWFs) are applied to ensure workpiece quality, to reduce tool wear, and to improve process productivity. The specific chemical composition of an applied MWF should be strongly dependent on the scope of application. Even small changes of the MWF-composition can influence the performance of MWFs in manufacturing processes considerably. Besides defined variations of the composition, the MWF-chemistry furthermore changes over the service life of the fluid. This paper presents the current state of the art regarding the assumed working mechanisms of MWFs including the effects of desired and undesired changes of the MWF properties.

 STC Dn 

Automating design with intelligent human-machine integration
Yue H. Yin (2), Andrew Y. C Nee (1), S.K. Ong (1), Jian Y. Zhu (1), Pei H. Gu (1), Lien J. Chen (2)  
STC Dn,  64/2/2015,  P.655
Keywords: Design automation, human-machine integration, intelligent design
Abstract : This paper reviews the state-of-the-art methodologies for automating design with intelligent human-machine integration from the perspectives of ontology and epistemology. The human-machine integrated automating design paradigm is reviewed systematically based on a proposed prototype of human-machine integrated design, from the aspects of ontology-based knowledge management with local-to-global ontology transitions, and epistemology-based upward-spiral cognitive process of coupled design ideation. Particularly, imaginal thinking frame is proposed as the foundation of intelligent human-machine interaction that puts human and machine on an equal platform. Further, this paper presents implementations and applications of the automating design paradigm and concludes with the identification of future trend.


Micro additive manufacturing using ultra short laser pulses
Bert Huis in ‘t Veld, Ludger Overmeyer (2), Michael Schmidt (2), Konrad Wegener (2), Ajay Malshe (1), Paulo Bartolo (1)  
STC E,  64/2/2015,  P.701
Keywords: Laser micromachining, Nano manufacturing, Additive manufacturing
Abstract : Ultra short, i.e. femto- and picosecond laser pulses, give new possibilities for additive manufacturing at micro- or nanometer length scales. This keynote paper focuses on two processes, viz Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) and two-photon polymerization (2PP). LIFT offers opportunity to transfer a large variety of materials and the resolution of 3D structures made with 2PP is unparalleled. Both processes have an enormous flexibility due to the possibility of Direct Laser Writing (DLW). Attention is provided to modelling and monitoring of these processes. Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) and hybrid micro stereo lithography are alternative methods and are briefly described.


Metal forming beyond shaping: predicting and setting product properties
A.E. Tekkaya (1), J.M. Allwood (1), P.F. Bariani (1), S. Bruschi (2), J. Cao (1), S. Gramlich, P. Groche (1), G. Hirt (2), T. Ishikawa (2), C. Löbbe, J. Lueg-Althoff, M. Merklein (2), W.Z. Misiolek, M. Pietrzyk (1), R. Shivpuri (1), J. Yanagimoto (1)  
STC F,  64/2/2015,  P.629
Keywords: Metal forming, Product, Properties
Abstract : Metal forming is not only shaping the form of a product, it is also influencing its mechanical and physical properties over its entire volume. Advanced anal-ysis methods recently enable accurate prediction of these properties and allow for setting these properties deterministically during the forming process. Effective measurement methods ensure the setting of these predicted properties. Several real examples demonstrate the impressive achievements and indicate the necessity of a paradigm change in designing products by including manufacturing-induced effects in the initial dimensioning. This paradigm change will lead to lightweight components and serve environmentally benign designs.


Abrasive machining of advanced aerospace alloys and composites
Fritz Klocke (1), Sein Leung Soo (2), Bernhard Karpuschewski (1), John A. Webster (1), Donka Novovic, Amr Elfizy, Dragos A. Axinte (1), Stefan Tönissen  
STC G,  64/2/2015,  P.581
Keywords: Abrasion, Grinding, Material Removal
Abstract : The aerospace industry has experienced significant growth over the past decade and it is estimated that nearly 30,000 new commercial passenger aircraft will be required by 2030 to meet rising global demand. Abrasive machining is a key material removal process utilised in the production of aeroengine components. Current industrial practice and perspectives relating to grinding in the aerospace sector are presented including general workpiece surface integrity standards/requirements, fluid delivery systems, wheel preparation options and machine tool designs/configurations. Corresponding academic research on the machinability of aerospace alloys and composites are critically reviewed together with recent developments involving novel/innovative grinding processes.


Materials in machine tool structures
Hans-Christian Möhring (2), Christian Brecher (1), Eberhard Abele (1), Jürgen Fleischer (1), Friedrich Bleicher (3)  
STC M,  64/2/2015,  P.725
Keywords: Machine tool, Material, Structure
Abstract : A broad variety of materials can be found in modern machine tool structures ranging from steel and cast iron to fiber reinforced composite materials. In addition, material combinations and hybrid structures are available. Furthermore, innovative intelligent and smart materials which incorporate sensor and actuator functionality enable the realization of function integrated structures. Consequently, material design and application discloses manifold degrees of freedom regarding a sophisticated layout and optimization of machine frames and components. This keynote paper presents the current state-of-the-art with respect to materials applied in machine tool structures and reviews the correspondent scientific literature. Thus, it gives an overview and insight regarding material selection and exploitation for high performance, high precision and high efficiency machine tools.


Cloud-Enabled Prognosis for Manufacturing
R. Gao (2), L. Wang (2), R. Teti (1), D. Dornfeld (1), S. Kumara (1), M. Mori (1), M. Helu  
STC O,  64/2/2015,  P.749
Keywords: Predictive Model, Condition Monitoring, Cloud Manufacturing
Abstract : Advanced manufacturing depends on the timely acquisition, distribution, and utilization of information from machines and processes across spatial boundaries. These activities can improve accuracy and reliability in predicting resource needs and allocation, maintenance scheduling, and remaining service life of equipment. As an emerging infrastructure, cloud computing provides new opportunities to achieve the goals of advanced manufacturing. This paper reviews the historical development of prognosis theories and techniques and projects their future growth enabled by the emerging cloud infrastructure. Techniques for cloud computing are highlighted, as well as the influence of these techniques on the paradigm of cloud-enabled prognosis for manufacturing. Finally, this paper discusses the envisioned architecture and associated challenges of cloud-enabled prognosis for manufacturing.


Measurement technologies for precision positioning
W. Gao (1), S.W. Kim (1), H. Bosse (3), H. Haitjema (2), Y.L. Chen, X.D. Lu (2), W. Knapp (1), A. Weckenmann (1), W.T. Estler (1), H. Kunzmann (1)  
STC P,  64/2/2015,  P.773
Keywords: Measurement, Positioning, Sensor
Abstract : Precision positioning of an object relative to a reference point is a common task in many activities of production engineering. Sensor technologies for single axis measurement, either linear or rotary, which form the fundamentals of measurement technologies for precision positioning, are reviewed. Multi-axis coordinate measurement methods such as triangulation and multilateration, as well as Cartesian and polar systems for specifying the position in a plane or three-dimensional (3D) space are then presented, followed by a discussion on traceability and standards. Some advanced applications of measurement technologies for precision positioning in manufacturing industries are also demonstrated.


Calibration and verification of areal surface texture measuring instruments
R.K. Leach, C.L. Giusca (3), H. Haitjema (2), C. Evans (1), X. Jiang (1)  
STC S,  64/2/2015,  P.797
Keywords: Calibration, Topography, Uncertainty
Abstract : In this paper, the calibration and verification infrastructure to support areal surface texture measurement and characterisation will be reviewed. A short historical overview of the subject will be given, along with a discussion of the most common instruments and directions of current international standards. Traceability and uncertainty will be discussed, followed by a presentation of the latest developments in software and material measurement standards. The concept and current infrastructure for determining the metrological characteristics of instruments will be highlighted and future research requirements will be presented.