CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Grasping Devices and Methods in Automated Production Processes
Gualtiero Fantoni (2), Marco Santochi (1), Gino Dini (1), Kirsten Tracht, Bernard Scholz-Reiter (1), Juergen Fleischer (1), Terje Kristoffer Lien (1), Guenther Seliger (1), Gunther Reinhart (1), Joerg Franke (2), Hans Norgaa  
STC A,  63/2/2014,  P.679
Keywords: Assembly, Automation, Grippers
Abstract : In automated production processes grasping devices and methods play a crucial role in the handling of many parts, components and products. This keynote paper starts with a classification of grasping phases, describes how different principles are adopted at different scales in different applications and continues explaining different releasing strategies and principles. Then the paper classifies the numerous sensors used to monitor the effectiveness of grasping (part presence, exchanged force, stick-slip transitions, etc.). Later the grasping and releasing problems in different fields (from mechanical assembly to disassembly, from aerospace to food industry, from textile to logistics) are discussed. Finally, the most recent research is reviewed in order to introduce the new trends in grasping. They provide an outlook on the future of both grippers and robotic hands in automated production processes.


Cutting Edge Geometries
B. Denkena (1), D. Biermann (2)  
STC C,  63/2/2014,  P.631
Keywords: Machining, Cutting Edge Preparation, Microgeometry
Abstract : Tool life and performance are decisively determined by cutting edge geometry. An appropriate shape of the cutting edge improves wear resistance, tool life and process reliability. This paper reviews major developments in cutting edge preparation technologies and methods of cutting edge characterization. Moreover, the influences of cutting edge geometry on chip formation, material flow, as well as mechanical and thermal loads on the tool are discussed. The essential modeling and simulation approaches are presented. Effects on surface integrity are described. Finally, an overview of important perceptions for prospective research and development in this field is provided.

 STC Cross-STC 

Hybrid Processes in Manufacturing
Bert Lauwers (1), Fritz Klocke (1), Andreas Klink, A. Erman Tekkaya (1), Reimund Neugebauer (1), Don Mcintosh (3)  
STC Cross-STC,  63/2/2014,  P.561
Keywords: Productivity, Surface Quality, Hybrid Processes
Abstract : Hybrid manufacturing processes are based on the simultaneous and controlled interaction of process mechanisms and/or energy sources/tools having a significant effect on the process performance. These processes have a large influence on the processing/manufacturing characteristics resulting in higher machinability, reductions of process forces and tool wear, etc. Due to the combined action of processes, it also has an important - and most of the time - positive effect on the surface integrity of machined parts. This paper gives a definition and classification of hybrid processes, followed by a description of principles and future perspectives, benefits on productivity, effects on surface quality and applications of common hybrid processes.

 STC Dn 

Tools & Techniques for Product Design
D. Lutters (2), F. van Houten (1), A. Bernard (1), E. Mermoz (3), C. Schutte (3)  
STC Dn,  63/2/2014,  P.607
Keywords: Product Design, Tools, Techniques
Abstract : For product designers, tools and techniques are essential in driving the design cycle. Nevertheless, their employment usually is implicit, while passing over e.g. the design and project environments empowering their adequate use. This publication presents an overview of approaches in structuring and using tools/techniques, based on the effectuation of creativity and decision-making in the design environment. In elaborating on characteristics of tools/techniques and ensuing ways of selecting them, the designer's portfolio of tools/techniques is characterised. Representative problems of tool/technique usage are depicted and contextualised by illustrating their industrial application. Prospects for future developments are also reviewed.


Turbomachinery Component Manufacture by application of Electrochemical , Electro-physical & Photonic Processes
Fritz Klocke (1), Andreas Klink, Drazen Veselovac, David Keith Aspinwall (1), Sein Leung Soo (2), Michael Schmidt (3), Johannes Schilp, Gideon Levy (1), Jean-Pierre Kruth (1)  
STC E,  63/2/2014,  P.703
Keywords: Material Removal, Additive Manufacturing, Turbomachinery
Abstract : This paper presents an overview of the current technological and economic capabilities of electrochemical (ECM-based), electrophysical (EDM-based) and photonic (Laser-/EBM-based) additive and removal processes for turbomachinery component manufacture. Starting with the industrial demands and challenges of today, the manufacturing technologies are reviewed in detail regarding achievable geometrical precision and surface integrity as well as material removal and deposition rates for conventionally difficult-to-cut Ti- and Ni-based alloys and dedicated steel alloys. Past, existing and future areas of technology application for different features are competingly discussed. The paper focusses on the description of shaping processes therefore excludes pure welding or coating applications.


Testing and Modelling of Material Behaviour and Formability in Sheet Metal Forming
Stefania Bruschi (2), Taylan Altan (1), Dorel Banabic (2), Paolo F. Bariani (1), Alexander Brosius, Jian Cao (2), Andrea Ghiotti, Marwan Khraisheh (2), Marion Merklein (2), A. Erman Tekkaya (1)   
STC F,  63/2/2014,  P.727
Keywords: Sheet metal, Forming, Modelling
Abstract : The paper deals with the testing and modelling of metals response when subjected to sheet forming operations. The focus is both on the modelling of hardening behaviour and yield criteria and on the description of the sheet metal formability limits. Within this scope, the paper provides a critical review of the models available today for predicting the material behaviour at both industrial and scientific level, and the tests needed to identify the models' material parameters. The most recent advances in the field are also presented and discussed with particular emphasis on the challenges the sheet metal forming community is now facing.


High Energy Fluid Jet Machining (HEFJet-Mach): from scientific and technological advances to niche industrial applications
D.A. Axinte (1), B. Karpuschewski (1), M.C. Kong, A.T. Beaucamp, S. Anwar, D. Miller, M. Petzel  
STC G,  63/2/2014,  P.751
Keywords: Abrasion, Waterjet machining, Fluid jet
Abstract : With the increasing demands to generate complex parts on ever-more advanced, but difficult-to-cut materials, a group of technologies, generically called High Energy Fluid Jet Machining (HEFJet-Mach) has found niche applications that stimulated further development of science and technology in this field. Here HEFJet-Mach refers to unrestrained fluid jets used to remove and/or deform the workpiece material. The aim of this paper is to systematically present the recent developments of HEFJet-Mach from various perspectives: machine/system designs; modelling of both jet plumes and their interactions with the target surfaces; part quality including material integrity; supervision and control of the process; key aspects of machine maintenance and health and safety.


Virtual Process Systems for Part Machining Operations
Y. Altintas (1), P. Kersting, D. Biermann (2), E. Budak (1), B. Denkena (1), I. Lazoglu (2)  
STC M,  63/2/2014,  P.585
Keywords: Virtual, Machining, CAM
Abstract : This paper presents an overview of recent developments in simulating machining and grinding processes along the NC tool path in virtual environments. The evaluations of cutter-part-geometry intersection algorithms are reviewed, and are used to predict cutting forces, torque, power, and the possibility of having chatter and other machining process states along the tool path. The trajectory generation of CNC systems is included in predicting the effective feeds. The NC program is automatically optimized by respecting the physical limits of the machine tool and cutting operation. Samples of industrial turning, milling and grinding applications are presented. The paper concludes with the present and future challenges to achieving a more accurate and efficient virtual machining process simulation and optimization system.


Design and Management of Manufacturing Systems for Production Quality
Marcello Colledani, Tullio Tolio (1), Anath Fischer (1), Benoit Iung (2), Gisela Lanza (2), Robert Schmitt (2), Jozsef Vancza (1)  
STC O,  63/2/2014,  P.773
Keywords: Manufacturing System, Production Quality, Maintenance Management
Abstract : Manufacturing companies are continuously facing the challenge of operating their manufacturing processes and systems in order to deliver the required production rates of high quality products, while minimizing the use of resources. "Production Quality" is proposed in this paper as a new paradigm aiming at going beyond traditional six-sigma approaches. This new paradigm is extremely relevant in technology intensive and emerging strategic manufacturing sectors, such as aeronautics, automotive, energy, medical technology, micro-manufacturing, electronics and mechatronics. Traditional six-sigma techniques show strong limitations in highly changeable production contexts, characterized by small batch productions, customized, or even one-of-a-kind products, and in-line product inspections. Innovative and integrated quality, production logistics and maintenance design, management and control methods as well as advanced technological enablers have a key role to achieve the overall "Production Quality" goal. This paper revises problems, methods and tools to support this paradigm and highlights the main challenges and opportunities for manufacturing industries in this context.


Industrial Applications of Computed Tomography
L. De Chiffre (1), S. Carmignato (2), J.P. Kruth (1), R. Schmitt (2), A. Weckenmann (1)  
STC P,  63/2/2014,  P.655
Keywords: Industrial application, Quality control, Dimensional metrology, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)
Abstract : The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography (CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper contains a survey of application examples from the manufacturing industry as well as from other industries, e.g., electrical and electronic devices, inhomogeneous materials, and from the food industry. Challenges as well as major national and international coordinated activities in the field of industrial CT are also presented.


Role of Surfaces and Interfaces in Solar Cell Manufacturing
Abhijit Chandra (2), Grant Anderson, Shreyes Melkote (2), Wei Gao (1), Han Haitjema (2), Konrad Wegener (2)  
STC S,  63/2/2014,  P.797
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Surface Integrity, Surface Modification
Abstract : Solar cells gained significant interest recently due to the rapid increase in fossil fuel costs and renewed attention to sustainability. The effectiveness of a solar cell in energy harvesting hinges on three key characteristics: efficiency of energy conversion, reliability and life expectancy, and cost. All three attributes are critically influenced by surface and interface properties inherent in the design and manufacture of these devices. This paper starts with an exposition of solar cell manufacturing, followed by discussion of efficiency enhancement, reliability issues, and cost and energy footprint reduction. Role of surface and interface modifications in realizing such improvements are assessed.