CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Model Based Virtual Assembly Simulation, Planning and Training
M. Leu (1), H. ElMaraghy (1), A.Y.C. Nee (1), S.K. Ong (1), M. Lanzetta (2), M. Putz (2), W.J. Zhu, A. Bernard (1)  
STC A,  62/2/2013,  P.799
Keywords: Assembly, CAD model, Simulation
Abstract : This paper reviews the state-of-the-art methodologies for developing computer-aided design (CAD) model based systems for assembly simulation, planning and training. Methods for CAD model generation from digital data acquisition, motion capture, assembly modeling, humancomputer interface, and data exchange between a CAD system and a VR/AR system are described. Also presented is an integrated methodology for designing, planning, evaluating and testing assembly systems. The paper further describes the implementation of these methods and provides application examples of CAD model based simulation for virtual assembly prototyping, planning and training. Finally, the technology gaps and future research and development needs are discussed.


Recent Advances in Modelling of Metal Machining Processes
P.J. Arrazola (2) , T. Özel, (2) , D. Umbrello (2), M. Davies (1) , I.S. Jawahir (1)  
STC C,  62/2/2013,  P.695
Keywords: Modelling, Machining, Chip formation
Abstract : During the last few decades, there has been significant progress in developing industry-driven predictive models for machining operations. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in predictive performance models for machining, and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of current models. This includes a critical assessment of the relevant modelling techniques and their applicability and/or limitations for the prediction of the complex machining operations performed in industry. This paper includes contributions from academia and industry, and is expected to serve as a comprehensive report of recent progress, as well as a roadmap for future directions. Process models often target the prediction of fundamental variables such as stresses, strains, strain-rates, temperatures etc. However, to be useful to industry, these variables must be correlated to performance measures: product quality (accuracy, dimensional tolerances, finish, etc.), surface and subsurface integrity, tool-wear, chip-form/breakability, burr formation, machine stability, etc. The adoption of machining models by industry critically depends on the capability of a model to make this link and predict machining performance. Therefore, this paper would identify and discuss several key research topics closely associated with predictive model development for machining operations, primarily targeting industry applications.

 STC Cross-STC 

M. Mitsuishi (1), J. Cao (2), P. Bartolo (2), D. Friedrich (3), A. Shih (2), K. Rajurkar (1), N. Sugita (2), K. Harada  
STC Cross-STC,  62/2/2013,  P.585
Keywords: Biomedical manufacturing, Health care, Multi-disciplinary research
Abstract : Biomedical markets are large and rapidly growing owing to increasing demand for better healthcare services. The development of innovative biomedical systems can produce major breakthroughs in the healthcare industry, and advanced manufacturing technologies can propel such innovations. This paper summarises the field of biomanufacturing: namely, biospecific design constraints, biomechatronics, biofabrication, biodesign, and assembly. This paper presents state-of-the-art research, current problems, and future goals while providing fundamental knowledge required for entry into the biomedical industry. Biomanufacturing provides excellent opportunities for multi-disciplinary collaborations, both in academia and industry, and can lead to further advances in many engineering fields.
Product Variety Management
H. ElMaraghy (1), G. Schuh (1), W. ElMaraghy (1), F. Piller, P. Schönsleben (2), M. Tseng (1), A. Bernard (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  62/2/2013,  P.629
Keywords: Variety, Design, Manufacturing
Abstract : A great challenge facing industry today is managing variety throughout the entire products life cycle. Drivers of products variety, its benefits, pre-requisites and associated complexity and cost are presented. Enhancing consumers’ value through variety and approaches for achieving it efficiently including modularity, commonality and differentiation are discussed. Variant-oriented manufacturing systems paradigms, as enablers of product variety, and the effective co-development of variants and their manufacturing systems to ensure economic sustainability are reviewed. Industrial applications and guidelines to achieve economy of scope with advantages of economy of scale are discussed. Perspectives and insights on future research in this field are offered.

 STC Dn 

Open Architecture Products
Y. Koren (1), J. Hu (1), P. Gu (1), M. Shpitalni (1)  
STC Dn,  62/2/2013,  P.719
Keywords: Open-Architecture, Assembly, Design
Abstract : This paper defines Open-Architecture Products (OAPs), a new class of products comprising a fixed platform and modules that can be added and swapped. Customers can adapt OAPs to their needs by integrating modules into the platform. Manufacturers will produce these platforms, while new small companies and customers will develop the modules, thus increasing employment and causing the economy to flourish. At the same time OAPs will provide consumers with the product they desire. Challenges include developing new OAP design software for non-professional designers and new assembly systems to facilitate economical assembly of a large number of product variants.


Modeling of ECM and EDM Processes
S. Hinduja (1), M. Kunieda (1)  
STC E,  62/2/2013,  P.775
Keywords: ECM, EDM, Modelling
Abstract : The modelling of ECM and EDM processes requires not one but several models to simulate the different phenomena that occur during machining. This paper reviews the models that have been developed to simulate each of these phenomena, e.g. potential models to calculate the current density distribution in ECM, thermal models for the plasma arc in EDM, moving boundary models to simulate the anodic dissolution in ECM and probabilistic models to determine the discharge location in EDM. In addition to discussing the relative merits of the techniques deployed in these models, the paper describes some salient applications and concludes with desirable future enhancements to these models.


Joining by Plastic Deformation
K.I. Mori (1), N. Bay (1), L. Fratini (2), F. Micari (1), E.A. Tekkaya (1)  
STC F,  62/2/2013,  P.673
Keywords: Joining, Plastic deformation, Forming
Abstract : As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportunities to design new products through joining dissimilar materials. This paper aims to provide an overview of the state of the art in such joining processes, including cold welding, friction stir welding, self-pierce riveting, mechanical clinching and joining by forming. The paper includes description of the mechanism of joint formation, and analysis of joint performance and applicability.


Sustainability of Abrasive Processes
J.C. Aurich (1), B. Linke, M. Hauschild (1), M. Carrella, B. Kirsch  
STC G,  62/2/2013,  P.653
Keywords: Abrasive Process, Sustainability, Life Cycle Assessment
Abstract : This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on “energyefficiency of abrasive processes” which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee “abrasive processes” (STC G) of CIRP, the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity.


Machine tools for large parts
L. Uriarte (3), M. Zatarain (1), D. Axinte (1), J. Yague-Fabra (2), S. Ilhenfeldt (3), J. Eguia, A. Olarra  
STC M,  62/2/2013,  P.731
Keywords: Machine tool, Calibration, Portable machine
Abstract : This paper reviews the design, engineering principles and applications of machine tools specially developed for large parts. Large workshop machines are commonly used for manufacturing, where the impact of the general engineering principles differs substantially from those applied to conventional size machines. Portable machines are used during assembly and operation due to mobility, agility and energy constraints. Such large dimensions produce an amplification factor of any error source, so verification and calibration of such large or portable machines becomes even more critical than in conventional machines. The paper also includes future trends and unsolved challenges.


Scalability in Manufacturing Systems Design and Operation: state-of-the-art and future development roadmap
G. Putnik (2), A. Sluga (2), H. ElMaraghy, R. Teti (1), Y. Koren (1), T. Tolio (1), K.K.B. Hon (1)  
STC O,  62/2/2013,  P.751
Keywords: Manufacturing system, Flexibility, Scalability
Abstract : The paper covers the main design, management and operational aspects of scalability in Manufacturing Systems (MS). It promotes scalability as an area of research of MS theory and practice in order to enhance techniques and methodologies in existing MS paradigms using advanced and emerging design and management approaches and ICT, and meet challenges of emerging MS paradigms and support their promotion and effective and efficient deployment in practice. The paper presents an introduction to scalability, state-of-the art in manufacturing and computer science, and related applications including manufacturing and education and a roadmap for future research and developments.


Manufacturing and Measurement of Freeform Optics
F.Z. Fang (1), X.D. Zhang, A. Weckenmann (1), G.X. Zhang (1), C. Evans (1)  
STC P,  62/2/2013,  P.823
Keywords: Freeform optics, Manufacturing, Measurement
Abstract : Freeform optics is the next-generation of modern optics, bringing advantages of excellent optical performance and system integration. It finds wide applications in various fields, such as new energy, illumination, aerospace and biomedical engineering. The manufacturing of freeform optics is an integrated technology involving optical design, machining, molding, measurement and characterization. This paper surveys the current application status and research on major technologies in details.


Bio-inspired Functional Surfaces for Advanced Applications
A.P. Malshe (2), K. Rajurkar (1), A. Samant, H.N. Hansen (1), S. Bapat, W. Jiang  
STC S,  62/2/2013,  P.607
Keywords: Surface, Nano manufacturing, Bio-inspired
Abstract : Over millions of years, biological subjects have been in continuous combat with extreme environmental conditions. The fittest have survived through continuous evolution. In particular, biological surfaces, which are the active interfaces between subjects and the environment, have evolved to a higher state of intelligent functionality. These surfaces became more efficient by using combinations of available materials, along with unique physical and chemical strategies. Noteworthy physical strategies include features such as texturing and structure, and chemical strategies such as sensing and actuation. These strategies collectively enable functional surfaces to deliver extraordinary adhesion, hydrophobicity, multispectral response, energy scavenging, thermal regulation, antibiofouling, and other advanced functions. Production industries have been intrigued with such biological surface strategies in order to learn clever surface architectures and implement those architectures to impart advanced functionalities into manufactured consumer products. This keynote paper delivers a critical review of such inspiring biological surfaces and their nonbiological product analogues, where manufacturing science and engineering have adopted such advanced functional surface architectures.