CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Assembly System Design and Operations for Product Variety
S.J. Hu (2), J. Ko, L. Weyand, H.A. ElMaraghy (1), T.K. Lien (1), Y. Koren (1), H. Bley (1), G. Chryssolouris (1), N. Nasr, M. Shpitalni (1)  
STC A,  60/2/2011,  P.715
Keywords: Assembly, System, Variety
Abstract : Assembly is the capstone process for product realization where component parts and subassemblies are integrated together to form the final products. As product variety increases due to the shift from mass production to mass customization, assembly systems must be designed and operated to handle such high variety. In this paper we first review the state of the art research in the areas of assembly system design, planning and operations in the presence of product variety. Methods for assembly representation, sequence generation and assembly line balancing are reviewed and summarized. Operational complexity and the role of human operators in assembly systems are then discussed in the context of product variety. Challenges in disassembly and remanufacturing in the presence of high variety are presented. We then conjecture a future manufacturing paradigm of personalized products and production and discuss the assembly challenge for such a paradigm. Opportunities for assembly system research are summarized at the end of the paper.


Surface Integrity in Material Removal Processes: Recent Advances
I.S. Jawahir (1), E. Brinksmeier (1), R. M'Saoubi (2), D.K. Aspinwall (1), J.C. Outeiro (2), D. Meyer, D. Umbrello, A.D. Jayal  
STC C,  60/2/2011,  P.603
Keywords: Material Removal, Surface Integrity, Predictive Models
Abstract : This paper is a result of a three-year study by the CIRP‟s Collaborative Working Group on Surface Integrity and Functional Performance of Components, and it reports recent progress in experimental and theoretical investigations on surface integrity in material removal processes. Experimental techniques for measuring various surface integrity parameters are presented. Results from a Round Robin Study on surface integrity parameters such as residual stresses, hardness and roughness in turning, milling, grinding, EDM, etc., are then presented. Finally, results and analysis of a benchmarking study comparing available predictive models for surface integrity are presented, followed by concluding remarks and future research directions.

 STC Cross-STC 

Velocity Effects in Metal Forming and Machining Processes
R. Neugebauer (1), K.-D. Bouzakis (1), B. Denkena (1), F. Klocke (1), A. Sterzing, A.E. Tekkaya (1), R. Wertheim (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  60/2/2011,  P.627
Keywords: Velocity, Forming, Machining
Abstract : Velocity is probably the most important parameter in manufacturing, influencing performance, cost, productivity, energy and resources efficiency as well as safety and environmental issues. This paper presents basic phenomena as well as other important effects which are linked to velocity as a process parameter. In addition, applications, for example superplastic forming or high speed cutting, which have been founded on uncommon process velocities are discussed in the context of technological developments which have taken place over the past several years.

 STC Dn 

Biologically Inspired Design
L.H. Shu (2), K. Ueda (1), I. Chiu, H. Cheong  
STC Dn,  60/2/2011,  P.673
Keywords: Design Method, Biologically Inspired Design, Biomimetic Design
Abstract : This paper reviews research on biologically inspired design, and has three main parts. The first part surveys examples relevant to three groupings of manufacturing research. The second part presents general methods to support biomimetic design, including different approaches for steps to identify and apply relevant biological analogies for given problems. The third part details examples that illustrate use of a general biomimetic design method, which identifies analogies from natural-language biological information. Finally, insights and conclusions are drawn and synthesized from all three parts.


Laser Nano-Manufacturing – State of the art and challenges
L. Li (1), M. Hong, M. Schmidt (3), M. Zhong, A. Malshe (2), B. Huis in't Veld (3), V. Kovalenko (1)  
STC E,  60/2/2011,  P.735
Keywords: Laser, Nano manufacturing, Material
Abstract : This paper provides an overview of advances in laser based nano-manufacturing technologies including surface nanostructure manufacturing, production of nano materials (nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanowires) and 3D nano-structures manufacture through multiple layer additive techniques and nano-joining/forming. Examples of practical applications of laser manufactured nanostructures, materials and components are given. A discussion on the challenges and outlooks in laser nano-manufacturing is presented.


Mechanical Servo Press Technology for Metal Forming
K. Osakada (1), K. Mori (2),T. Altan (1), P. Groche (1)  
STC F,  60/2/2011,  P.651
Keywords: Forging, Stamping, Servo press
Abstract : Recently several press builders developed gap and straight-sided metal forming presses that utilise the mechanical servo-drive technology. The mechanical servo-drive press offers the flexibility of a hydraulic press (infinite slide (ram) speed and position control, availability of press force at any slide position) with the speed, accuracy and reliability of a mechanical press. Servo drive presses have capabilities to improve process conditions and productivity in metal forming. This paper reviews the servo press designs, servo-motor and the related technologies, and introduces major applications in sheet metal forming and bulk metal forming.


Conditioning and Monitoring of Grinding Wheels
K. Wegener (3), H.-W. Hoffmeister, B. Karpuschewski (1), F. Kuster (3), W.-C. Hahmann, M. Rabiey  
STC G,  60/2/2011,  P.757
Keywords: Dressing, Grinding tool, Conditioning
Abstract : The preparation of grinding tools is the most important enabling factor in the grinding process. It influences the material removal rate, the grinding forces, the surface quality as well as the material properties of the subsurface zone, and is the key issue for subsequent wear of grinding tools. The evolving and conventional conditioning technologies are reviewed based on technical and commercial aspects. Terms in the field of conditioning are defined. Strong emphasis today is put on the description and monitoring of the abrasive layer. For optimization of the dressing process, prediction of the grinding wheel topography and the ground surface are emerging scientific topics.


Machine Tool Feed Drives
Y. Altintas (1), A. Verl (2), C. Brecher (2), L. Uriarte (3), G. Pritschow (1)  
STC M,  60/2/2011,  P.779
Keywords: Feed, Drive, Machine tool
Abstract : This paper reviews the design and control of feed drive systems used in machine tools. Machine tool guides designed using friction, rolling element, hydrostatic and magnetic levitation principles are reviewed. Mechanical drives based on ball -screw and linear motors are presented along with their compliance models. The electrical motors and sensors used in powering and measuring the motion are discussed. The control of both rigid and flexible drive systems is presented along with active damping strategies. Virtual modeling of feed drives is discussed. The paper presents the engineering principles and current challenges in the design, analysis and control of feed drives.


Cooperative and Responsive Manufacturing Enterprises
J. Vancza (1), L. Monostori (1), D. Lutters (2), S.R. Kumara (1), M. Tseng (1), P. Valckenaers, H. Van Brussel (1)  
STC O,  60/2/2011,  P.797
Keywords: Production, Network, Coordination, Cooperation, Responsiveness
Abstract : The paper discusses manufacturing enterprises‘ compelling challenges that are directly stemming from generic conflicts between competition and cooperation, local autonomy and global behavior, design and emergence, planning and reactivity, uncertainty and a plethora of information. Responses in product and service design, organization of production networks, planning and management of operations, as well as production control are surveyed. As illustrated through industrial case studies, production engineering should integrate a rich body of interdisciplinary results together with contemporary information and communication technologies in order to facilitate cooperation and responsiveness that are vital in competitive, sustainable manufacturing.


Computed Tomography for Dimensional Metrology
J.P. Kruth (1), M. Bartscher, S. Carmignato, R. Schmitt (2), L. De Chiffre (1), A. Weckenmann (1)  
STC P,  60/2/2011,  P.821
Keywords: Quality control, Metrology, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)
Abstract : This paper gives a survey of the upcoming use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for dimensional quality control purposes: i.e. for traceable measurement of dimensions of technical (mechanical) components and for tolerance verification of such components. It gives a survey of the basic principles of CT metrology, putting emphasis on issues as accuracy, traceability to the unit of length (the meter) and measuring uncertainty. It provides a state-of-the-art survey, anno 2011, with some practical application examples showing the aptitude of CT metrology to check internal dimensions that cannot be measured using traditional coordinate measuring machines and to combine dimensional quality control with material quality control in one single quality inspection run.


Replication of Micro and Nano Surface Geometries
H.N. Hansen (1), R.J. Hocken (1), G. Tosello  
STC S,  60/2/2011,  P.695
Keywords: Surface, Micro and nano structures, Replication
Abstract : The paper describes the state-of-the-art in replication of surface texture and topography at micro and nano scale. The description includes replication of surfaces in polymers, metals and glass. Three different main technological areas enabled by surface replication processes are presented: manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps.