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CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




From Life Cycle Assessment to Sustainable Production: Status and Perspectives
M. Hauschild (2), J. Jeswiet (1), L. Alting (1)  
STC A,  54/2/2005,  P.535
Keywords: Lifecycle, Sustainable production, Eco-design, Integrated Product Policy
Abstract : The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is substantiated describing the different tools of the IPP. An overview is given on Design for Environment (DFE), presenting central findings from the latest decade of research and reviewing different DFE tools which have been developed. Describing the DFX's of Design for environment, a specific focus is devoted to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the ecoefficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified.

 STC Cross-STC 

Capability Profile of Hard Cutting and Grinding Processes (STCs C & G)
F. Klocke (1), E. Brinksmeier (1), K. Weinert (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  54/2/2005,  P.557
Keywords: Abrasive, Cutting, Machining
Abstract : This keynote paper aims at matching the supply of research results with the industrial demands in hard cutting and grinding. The capability profiles of the processes are characterised and several manufacturing solutions are discussed. The comparison of hard cutting and grinding operations is carried out with regard to certain evaluation criteria based on the functionality of the machined workpiece itself, discussed at different levels, and the process economical efficiency. The basis for a roadmap of future development of hard machining technology is provided, e. g. the main technological developments associated with multi-processing hard machining concepts are given detailed consideration.

 STC Dn 

Complexity in Engineering
N.P. Suh (1)  
STC Dn,  54/2/2005,  P.581
Keywords: Complexity, Axiomatic design, Engineering
Abstract : In designing and operating engineering systems such as products and manufacturing systems, the goal is to reduce complexity so as to make the system robust, guarantee their long-term stability, make the system reliable, and minimize the cost. In the complexity theory presented in this keynote paper, the complexity is defined as the measure of uncertainty in achieving the functional requirements (FRs) of a system within their specified design range. This definition of complexity leads to the existence of four different types of complexity: time-independent real complexity, time-independent imaginary complexity, time-dependent combinatorial complexity, and time-dependent periodic complexity. According to this complexity theory, complexity of any system can be reduced by taking the following actions: (1) minimize the number of functional requirements (FRs), (2) eliminate the time-independent real complexity, (3) eliminate the time-independent imaginary complexity, (4) transform a system with time-dependent combinatorial complexity into a system with time-dependent periodic complexity by introducing functional periodicity and by reinitializing the system at the beginning of each period. The importance of the functional periodicity in reducing time-dependent combinatorial complexity is illustrated using examples.


Advancing EDM through Fundamental Insight into the Process
M. Kunieda (2), B. Lauwers (2), K.P. Rajurkar (1), B.M. Schumacher (1)  
STC E,  54/2/2005,  P.599
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM)
Abstract : This paper aims to show the prospects of electrical discharge machining (EDM) technology by interrelating recent achievements in fundamental studies on EDM with newly developed advanced application technologies. Although gap phenomena in EDM are very complicated and hence not yet very well understood, recent improvements in computers and electronic measuring instruments are contributing to new discoveries and inventions in EDM technology. Such newly acquired insight sometimes raises questions on the validity of the established theories of EDM phenomena, and EDM processes once believed to be impossible or unrealistic are now becoming practical.


Asymmetric Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal
J. Jeswiet (1), F. Micari (1), G. Hirt, A. Bramley (1), J. Duflou (2), J. Allwood  
STC F,  54/2/2005,  P.623
Keywords: Forming, Rapid Prototyping, Sheet Metal
Abstract : The use of computers in manufacturing has enabled the development of several new sheet metal forming processes, which are based upon older technologies. This paper describes modifications that have been made to traditional forming methods such as conventional spinning and shear forming, forming processes in which deformation is localized. Recent advances have enabled this localized deformation to be accurately controlled and studied. Current developments have been focused on forming asymmetric parts using CNC technology, without the need for costly dies. Asymmetric Incremental Sheet Forming has the potential to revolutionize sheet metal forming, making it accessible to all levels of manufacturing. This paper describes the genesis and current state-of-the-art of Asymmetric Incremental Sheet Forming.


Virtual Machine Tool
Y. Altintas (1), C. Brecher, M. Weck (1), S. Witt  
STC M,  54/2/2005,  P.651
Keywords: Simulation, Machine Tools, Virtual Prototype
Abstract : This paper presents current state of Virtual Machine Tool Technology and related ongoing research challenges. The structural analysis of machine tools using Finite Element models and their experimental calibration techniques are presented. The kinematic analysis and optimisation of machine tool elements are discussed with sample examples. The interaction between the control of the feed drives, cutting conditions and machine tool structure is presented. Multi-body dynamic models of the machine, which allow integrated simulation of machine kinematics, structural dynamics and control techniques, are discussed.eThe interaction between the machine tool, controller and cutting process disturbances are discussed with sample examples. The simulation of machining operation and its impact on the dynamics of the machine tool and CNC are elaborated. The paper presents both the summary of current and past research, as well as research challenges in order to realise a fully digitised model of the machine tool.


Performance and Evaluation of Manufacturing Systems
K.K.B. Hon (1)  
STC O,  54/2/2005,  P.675
Keywords: Manufacturing, System, Performance
Abstract : The monitoring and control of the input and output of manufacturing systems is an essential task for the system optimisation. Performance of manufacturing systems covers a wide spectrum of technology and management activities. This paper reviews the historical evolution of and modern developments in manufacturing performance measurement within a systems framework based on five metrics and five levels from single workstation to the entire manufacturing network. A summary of an industrial survey in the aerospace industry is also included to provide an industrial perspective. The implications of emerging topics of growing importance in sustainability, agility, e-manufacturing, complexity and biomimetics are also discussed.


Productive Metrology - Adding Value to Manufacture
H. Kunzmann (1), T. Pfeifer (2), R. Schmitt, H. Schwenke (2), A. Weckenmann (2)  
STC P,  54/2/2005,  P.691
Keywords: Production Metrology, Information Technology, Deterministic Process Control
Abstract : Metrology has a stigma of being non-productive and in many cases the aim of production engineers is to reduce metrology costs to an absolute minimum. This paper analyzes the role of metrology in production and demonstrates, how metrology can generate value. It illustrates different ways to evaluate the benefit of metrology and gives metrologists guidance to sell metrology with economic arguments. The term productive metrology is introduced to emphasis the common interest of both production engineers and industrial metrologists to employ metrology to the best benefit of the product. Starting from information theory, the paper describes the role of metrology in production and gives basic recipes to evaluate and maximize the benefit of metrology investment. Examples from different fields of engineering illustrate productive roles of metrology.


Optical Metrology of Surfaces
R.J. Hocken (1), N. Chakraborty, C. Brown (2)  
STC S,  54/2/2005,  P.705
Keywords: Measuring Instrument, Optical, Surface
Abstract : Measurement of surface topography plays an important role in manufacturing, being used for both the control of manufacturing processes and for final product acceptance. These measurements can be performed with a variety of instruments which have different capabilities and limitations. In this paper we present a wide variety of instruments that are used for measuring surface topography using optical techniques. These range from systems that are over a century old to recently-developed instrumentation that has broad new capability. We have, insofar as possible, tried to cover all of the instruments used in the visible region; however, considering the plethora of techniques and papers discovered, some omission is certainly possible.