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CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Assembly and Disassembly Processes in Product Life Cycle Perspectives
E. Westkaemper (1)  
STC A,  52/2/2003,  P.579
Keywords: Assembly, Disassembly, Life Cycle Management
Abstract : Industrial companies change the paradigms of business operations from optimisation of manufacturing processes to optimisation of products life cycles in order to activate the value of products, taking into account the potentials of product services in all phases of each product?s life. From design to the end of their life capital intensive products, like manufacturing or assembly systems, are linked to a manufacturer network by global communication systems. This network allows special services even in the phases of usage and recycling. For this new paradigm it is necessary to develop strategies, methods and technologies to manage the business processes and the information and knowledge required in all phases of a product?s life and to industrialise the processes of design, assembly, usage, service and remanufacturing by disassembly and recycling. It is the objective of this paper to define the processes for management of life cycle with a focus on assembly, service and disassembly of capital intensive products.


Advancing Cutting Technology
G. Byrne (1), D. Dornfeld (1), B. Denkena  
STC C,  52/2/2003,  P.483
Keywords: Cutting, Material Removal, Process Development
Abstract : This paper reviews some of the main developments in cutting technology since the foundation of CIRP over fifty years ago. Material removal processes can take place at considerably higher performance levels in the range up to Qw = 150 - 1500 cm3/min for most workpiece materials at cutting speeds up to some 8.000 m/min. Dry or near dry cutting is finding widespread application. The superhard cutting tool materials embody hardness levels in the range 3000 ? 9000 HV with toughness levels exceeding 1000 MPa. Coated tool materials offer the opportunity to fine tune the cutting tool to the material being machined. Machining accuracies down to 10 265m can now be achieved for conventional cutting processes with CNC machine tools, whilst ultraprecision cutting can operate in the range < 0.1265m. The main technological developments associated with the cutting tool and tool materials, the workpiece materials, the machine tool, the process conditions and the manufacturing environment which have led to this advancement are given detailed consideration in this paper. The basis for a roadmap of future development of cutting technology is provided.

 STC Dn 

Design in the New e-Commerce Era
M. Tseng (1), T. Kjellberg (2), S.C-Y Lu (2)  
STC Dn,  52/2/2003,  P.509
Keywords: Design, Integration and Life Cycle Management
Abstract : The computing and communication have become indispensable in every aspect of design and manufacturing. Its impacts on production engineering community have been significant and long lasting. In this paper, we reviewed new e-Commerce models that directly link among production capabilities and with end consumers. We then identified three major forces that will affect the design community, namely, speed of decision, expansion of scope and degree of concurrency. Understanding the implication of these forces would be conducive to leading structural changes in design. The transformations include expanding the scope of design, linking customers and suppliers proactively throughout the entire value chain, and collaborating across boundaries.


Rapid Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling with Layer Mabufacturing (LM) Technologies, State of the Art and Future Perspectives
G.N. Levy (1), R. Schindel, J.P. Kruth (1)  
STC E,  52/2/2003,  P.589
Keywords: Rapid, Manufacturing, Tooling
Abstract : Additive processes, which generate parts in a layered way, have more than 15 years of history. These processes are not exclusively used for prototyping any longer. New opportunities and applications in appropriate manufacturing tasks open up, even though the economical impact is still modest. This review starts with the definition of Rapid Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling, dealing only with direct fabrication methods of components. A systematic material dependent classification of layer manufacturing and process oriented metal part manufacturing techniques are proposed. The generic and the major specific process characteristics and materials are described, mainly for metallic parts, polymer parts and tooling. Examples and applications are cited. The paper attempts to understand the state of the art and the prospective, to put questions, to understand limits, to show opportunities and to draw conclusions based on the state of the art.


Manufacturing of Lightweight Components by Metal Forming
M. Kleiner (2), M. Geiger (1), A. Klaus  
STC F,  52/2/2003,  P.521
Keywords: Metal forming, material property, lightweight construction
Abstract : Due to constantly increasing ecological concerns and demands for higher performance, lightweight construction is a key factor to success mainly in the transportation sector but also in general engineering, machinetools, and architecture. This paper deals with current and future contributions of forming technology to the manufacture of lightweight components and structures. As design, materials, and manufacturing processes have to be considered integratively, it is pointed out which issues arise in the production of load adapted designs and using high strength materials. Frame and shell structure concepts as well as their related forming processes are presented. Finally, fields of further research are identified.


Material Removal Mechanisms in Lapping and Polishing
C.J. Evans (1), E. Paul , D. Dornfeld (1), D. A. Lucca (1), G. Byrne (1), M. Tricard, F. Klocke (1), O. Dambon, B. A. Mullany  
STC G,  52/2/2003,  P.611
Keywords: Lapping, polishing, planarization
Abstract : Polishing processes are critical to high value production processes such as IC manufacturing. The fundamental material removal mechanisms, howeve, are poorly understood. Technological outputs (e.g., surface finish, sub-surface damage, part shape) and throughput of lapping and polishing processes are affected by a large number of variables. Individual processes are well controlled within individual enterprises, yet there appears to be little ability to predict process performance a priori. As a first step toward improving process modeling, this paper reviews the fundamental mechanisms of material removal in lapping and polishing processes and identifies key areas where further work is required.


Present and Future of Flexible Automation: Towards New Paradigms
F. Jovane (1), Y. Koren (1), C.R. Boer (1)  
STC M,  52/2/2003,  P.543
Keywords: Manufacturing, Flexible Automation, Technology Foresight
Abstract : Automation has been one of the key drivers of the modern Manufacturing Industry and it has been present in various forms from the beginning of the industrial era until today passing through different evolutions responding to human?s needs. Therefore automation and the manufacturing industry have undergone several paradigm changes in the last century. They were driven by the market conditions and society needs and were realized by timely developed engineering enabling technologies that fitted the paradigm requirements. This paper maps the different paradigms in terms of market and societal drivers and process technology enablers in order to show a consistent model of paradigm development, a model that links the product, and the process with the appropriate business model. The Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) have been especially analysed as the major enabler to the mass customization paradigm. Summing up, a mapping methodology, able to map all past, present and future production paradigms, is presented. An example on the footwear sector has also been mapped and presented. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in Europe and the USA mechanical industries during 2002. The analysis, carried out within the CIRP Working Group on ?Flexible Automation ? Assessment and Future? has shown that new paradigms are emerging beyond flexible automation, paradigms that require addressing new technological challenges. Developing these new enabling technologies requires the establishment of new national RTD programmes. Therefore, the role of past national RTD programmes in developing previous enabling technologies that eventually elevated human wealth and life quality is also briefly mentioned. Foresight scenario building and ?roadmapping? activities ?taking place in different relevant economic regions- are presented. They point to new paradigms and technologies to be developed and call for new RTD programmes to be launched.


Micro Engineering
L. Alting (1), F. Kimura (1), H.N. Hansen (2), G. Bissacco  
STC O,  52/2/2003,  P.635
Keywords: Micro Engineering, Product Design and Development, Process and
Abstract : Production Development The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. Finally, manufacturing and assembly of micro products as well as the philosophy of micro factories are presented and discussed.


Gear Metrology
G. Goch (2)  
STC P,  52/2/2003,  P.659
Keywords: Conventional Gear Measurement, Accuracy, Superficial Flank Modelling
Abstract : Gear drives represent key components for all kind of vehicles, machine tools, aircrafts, household appliances as well as a broad variety of industrial equipment and toys. The designers are confronted with increasing demands concerning lifetime, power transmission and noise emission, whereas the size and weight of gear drives is constantly reduced. Thus, the measurement of gears and gear tools is of decisive importance for gear production. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of gear metrology, where tactile probing methods dominate almost exclusively. It summarizes new modelling and measuring principles, enabling a superficial description and inspection of gears. Especially optical measuring methods, the inspection of micro gears and alignment problems are discussed in detail. A final section reports the actual accuracy limits of gear measurements. It points out that a significant reduction of the measuring uncertainty associated with gears, standards and instruments is an urgent need for the production of high-precision gears.


Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Microengineering and Nanotechnology
L. De Chiffre (1), H. Kunzmann (1), G.N. Peggs (1), D.A. Lucca (1)  
STC S,  52/2/2003,  P.561
Keywords: surface, precision engineering, microengineering, nanotechnology
Abstract : This paper addresses the role of surfaces at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. Applications, functional behaviour, and manufacturing issues are reviewed with respect to state-of-the-art and emerging products fabricated using high precision technologies. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are presented, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, light and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface properties at micro and nanoscale are considered, including geometry as well as physical and chemical properties. Different manufacturing processes are reviewed with respect to surface fabrication, encompassing conventional machining, microfabrication, and nanomanipulation. Surface metrology at micro and nanoscale is briefly addressed, and its fundamental importance strongly emphasized.