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CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Highly flexible Assembly - Scope and Justification
K. Feldmann (1), S. Slama  
STC A,  50/2/2001,  P.489
Keywords: Assembly, Flexible manufacturing system, Employment-oriented Rationalization
Abstract : To be competitive nowadays it is absolutely necessary for manufacturers to align their products and production with customer demands. This customer-orientation is leading to an increasing number of variants and to shorter product life cycles requiring a high degree of flexibility, low-cost/low-volume manufacturing skills, and short time to market. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new rationalization potentials due to technological changes in products and assembly processes. New concepts for flexible automation and alternative strategies for employee-oriented assembly secure a leading position in the world market and open up new potential for additional employment.


Manufacturing of Dies and Molds
T. Altan (1), B. Lilly, Y.C. Yen  
STC C,  50/2/2001,  P.405
Keywords: Die, Mold, Manufacturing
Abstract : The design and manufacturing of dies and molds represent a significant link in the entire production chain because nearly all mass produced discrete parts are formed using production processes that employ dies and molds. Thus, the quality, cost and lead times of dies and molds affect the economics of producing a very large number of components, subassemblies and assemblies, especially in the automotive industry. Therefore, die and mold makers are forced to develop and implement the latest technology in: part and process design including process modeling, rapid prototyping, rapid tooling, optimized tool path generation for high speed cutting and hard machining, machinery and cutting tools, surface coating and repair as well as in EDM and ECM. This paper, prepared with input from many CIRP colleagues, attempts to review the significant advances and practical applications in this field.

 STC Dn 

Product Innovation - Industrial Approach
G. Seliger (2) A. Buchholz  
STC Dn,  50/2/2001,  P.425
Keywords: Design, Management, Innovation
Abstract : Innovation consists of technological invention and economic exploitation. Arts and natural sciences considerably contribute to invention whereas economics and management deal with the exploitation aspect of innovation. In creating artifacts for useful purposes engineering covers both invention and exploitation. Different types of innovation are considered with respect to design rules and business cases. The challenge of finding reasonable paths of innovation is illustrated by industrial shortcomings. Scientific approaches in manufacturing in general and especially in design to avoid these shortcomings are denominated and analysed.


Electroforming Process and Application to Micro/Macro Manufacturing
J.A. McGeough (1), M. Leu (2), K. Rajurkar (1), A. De Silva (2), Q. Liu  
STC E,  50/2/2001,  P.499
Keywords: Electroforming, Micro/Macro part manufacture
Abstract : Electroforming is the highly specialised use of electrodeposition for the manufacture of metal parts. This paper describes the process principles and mechanisms of electroforming, outlining its advantages and limitations. A review of modelling and simulation of electroforming and experimental analysis work is also presented. The metals that can be electroformed successfully are copper, nickel, iron or silver, thickness up to 16 mm, dimensional tolerances up to 1 μm, and surface finishes of 0.05 μm Ra. The ability to manufacture complex parts to close tolerances and cost effectively has meant that electroforming has applications both in traditional/macro manufacturing and new micromanufacturing fields. These include tooling; mould making; fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and the combination of lithography, electroforming and plastic moulding in the LIGA process. Applications in micro-optics and medicine are included.


M. Geiger (1), M. Kleiner (2), R. Eckstein, N. Tiesler, U. Engel  
STC F,  50/2/2001,  P.445
Keywords: Micro Metal Forming, Material, Equipment
Abstract : Microforming is a well suited technology to manufacture very small metallic parts, in particular for mass production, as they are required in many industrial products resulting from microtechnology. Compared to other manufacturing technologies microforming features specific economical and ecological advantages. Nevertheless, there are only some singular applications known until today. This paper tries to find out the reason why, analyzing systematically the problems emerging in transferring the know-how on forming from the macro- to the microworld. Reviewing the state of the art in basic and applied research reveals that scaling effects do appear not only within the process but must be taken into account in all the other areas of the whole forming system as well, demanding finally new solutions especially for tool manufacturing and machine concepts. Recent progress, innovative ideas and new developments on these sectors represent a promising basis to exploit the inherent potential of microforming in the future.


Grinding Chatter - Origin and Suppression
I. Inasaki (1), B. Karpuschewski (2), H.S. Lee  
STC G,  50/2/2001,  P.515
Keywords: Grinding, Chatter, Monitoring
Abstract : Grinding chatter is one of the most critical errors in grinding operations and one that has a strong impact on the ultimate geometrical workpiece accuracy. In the paper the origin of chatter that is particularly due to regenerative effects during inner and outer diameter as well as surface grinding is explained. After the discussion on its influence on surface quality, the possibilities related to process monitoring for the detection of chatter during grinding are presented. Special attention is paid to the suppression of chatter e.g. by employing active or passive damping methods. Furthermore, information on a suitable procedure to conduct a stability assessment for grinding machines is provided.


Open Controller Architecture - Past, Present and Future
G. Pritschow (1), Y. Altintas (1), F. Jovane (1), Y. Koren (1), M. Mitsuishi (2), S. Takata (1), H. Van Brussel (1), M. Weck (1), K. Yamazaki (1)  
STC M,  50/2/2001,  P.463
Keywords: Open architecture control, CNC, Machine tool
Abstract : Open Control Systems are the key enabler for the realization of modular and re-configurable manufacturing systems. The large number of special purpose machines and the high level of automation have led to an increasing importance of open control systems based on vendor neutral standards. This paper gives an overview on the past, present and future of Open Controller Architecture. After reflecting onthe different criteria, categories and characteristics of open controllers in general, the CNC products in the market are evaluated and an overview on the world-wide research activities in Europe, North America and Japan is given. Subsequently the efforts to harmonize the different results are described in order to establish a common world-wide standard in the future. Due to the ?mix-and-match? nature of open controllers concentrated attention must be paid to testing mechanisms in the form of conformance and interoperability tests.


Emergent Synthesis Methodologies for Manufacturing
K. Ueda (1), A. Markus (2), L. Monostori (1), H.J.J. Kals (1), T. Arai (1)  
STC O,  50/2/2001,  P.535
Keywords: Synthesis, Emergence, Complexity, Manufacturing Systems
Abstract : This paper offers a concise overview of new manufacturing methodologies that are based on emergent synthesis. Starting with the conceptual questions concerning analysis, synthesis and emergence, it classifies the difficulties of synthesis problems with respect to the incompleteness of human knowledge on the environment and of the specification of purpose of the artifact. Then, it clarifies the importance of emergence and self-reference and their relations to solving synthesis problems. It reviews about 300 papers according to the problem classification and in terms of three phases of concept formation, theory and application. It also discusses the system-theoretical aspects of artifactual environment.


Task Specific Uncertainty in Coordinate Measurement
R.G. Wilhelm (2), R. Hocken (1), H. Schwenke  
STC P,  50/2/2001,  P.553
Keywords: Metrology, Uncertainty, Modeling
Abstract : Task specific uncertainty is the measurement uncertainty associated with the measurement of a specific feature using a specific measurement plan. This paper surveys techniques developed to model and estimate task specific uncertainty for coordinate measuring systems, primarily coordinate measuring machines using contacting probes. Sources of uncertainty are also reviewed.


Contribution of CIRP to the Development of Metrology and Surface Quality Evaluation during the last fifty years
J. Peters (1), J. Bryan (1), W.T. Estler (2), C. Evans (1), H. Kunzmann (1), D.A. Lucca (1), S. Sartori (1), H. Sato (1), E.G. Thwaite (1), P. Vanherck (1)  
STC S,  50/2/2001,  P.471
Keywords: Metrology, Precision Engineering, Surface Quality
Abstract : An overview of the contribution of the members of the C.I.R.P. community to the progress of Metrology and Surface Roughness Quality Evaluation is given. The following items are included in the part on metrology: brief overview of the existing situation before 1950, contribution to the successive definitions of the unit of length and related reference length standards, traceability, preliminary work to standardization, thermal effects, design and construction of precision machine tools and measuring machines, CMM, large scale metrology. In the field of surface quality evaluation, the following items are reviewed: reference profiles and related definitions of parameters, filtering, surface and subsurface integrity, functional meaning of parameters, instrumentation, scanning probe microscopy, 3D surface evaluation. A comprehensive list of references is provided.