CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Sensor Technology in Assembly Systems
M. Santochi (1), G. Dini (2)  
STC A,  47/2/1998,  P.503
Keywords: Process Monitoring, Assembling, Sensor Technology
Abstract : This paper describes the present state of the art of sensor technology in automated assembly and analyzes the trends of research performed in the last years. After having examined which are the main reasons for using sensors, the assembly operations requiring sensors are shown. Then the working principles of the most diffused sensors are described together with open problems and some examples of typical applications: force, tactile, optical and vision, mechanical probes and positional sensors. In addition the paper examines the main trends of present research with special reference to new types of sensors, to new application areas, to sensor fusion and artificial intelligence for their management. Finally typical industrial assembly applications are described where sensors have been successfully used.


The State-of-the-Art of Modelling in Machining Processes
C.A. Van Luttervelt (1) , T. Childs (1) , I.S. Jawahir (2), F. Klocke (1) , P.K. Venuvinod (1)  
STC C,  47/2/1998,  P.587
Keywords: cutting, modeling, co-operative work
Abstract : In 1995 CIRP STC "Cutting" started a working group "Modeling of Machining Operations" with the aim of stimulating the development of models capable of predicting quantitatively the performance of metal cutting operations which will be better adapted to the needs of the metal cutting industry in the future. This paper has the character of a pro255gress report. It presents the aims of the working group and the results obtained up to now. The aim is not to review extensively what has been done in the past. It is basically a critical assessment of the present state-of-the-art of the wide and complex field of modeling and simulation of metal cutting operations based on information obtained from the members of the working group, from consultation in industry, study of relevant literature and discussions at meetings of the working group whit the aim to stimulate and pilot future developments. For this purpose much at255tention is given to a discussion of desirable and possible future developments and planned new activities.

 STC Dn 

Manufacturing System Design
N.P. Suh (1), D.S. Cochran, P.C. Lima  
STC Dn,  47/2/1998,  P.627
Keywords: axioms, design, manufacturing, systems
Abstract : To achieve the desired goals of a manufacturing enterprise, manufacturing systems must be designed to satisfy a specific set of functional requirements (FRs) and constraints (C). Such a design can be achieved based on axiomatic design theory. A hypothetical manufacturing system that has to produce a mix of products in large numbers in highly competitive industry is designed to illustrate the methodology. This design, albeit hypothetical, may be an ideal and practical design for many manufacturing firms competing in consumer-oriented industries with worldwide over-capacity of manufacturing facilities.


Progress in additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping
J.P. Kruth (1)  
STC E,  47/2/1998,  P.525
Keywords: rapid prototyping and manufacturing, additive manufacturing processes
Abstract : Rapid prototyping generally refers to techniques that produce shaped parts by gradual creation or addition of solid material, therein differing fundamentally from forming and material removal manufacturing techniques. This paper tries to summarize one decade of research and developments in rapid prototyping. The first part surveys some general economical and technological trends. The second part of the paper goes into some more details on a process-by-process basis.


Advance in FEM simulation and its related Technologies in Sheet Metal Forming
A. Makinouchi, C. Teodosiu, T. Nakagawa (1)  
STC F,  47/2/1998,  P.641
Keywords: sheet metal forming, simulation, finite element method, CAD
Abstract : This paper presents an overview of the current state of sheet metal forming simulation and related technologies employed by automakers and steel sheet suppliers. For this purpose the authors visited industries in Europe, Japan, and the United States, to discuss the above-mentioned issues with engineers and researchers. Softwares used in each industry are shown in tables and evaluation of finite element cods from industrial users are also summarized in a table. Based on those information the future direction of research in this field is suggested.


Grinding Process Achievements and their Consequences on Machine Tools - challenges & opportunities
H.K. Toenshoff (1) , I. Inasaki (1), B. Karpuschewski, T. Mandrysch  
STC G,  47/2/1998,  P.651
Keywords: Grinding, machine, component
Abstract : In industrial practice substitution processes are going on from abrasive processes to cutting and vice versa. To judge the future of grinding the process and machine developments have to be taken into account. The paper shows the interdependence between process and machine innovations. The machine tool developments relevant to grinding processes are investigated on a component and a system level. Process developments and their relevance to new demands on or to new design features of machines are pointed out. Research activities give an insight into future potentials and into the challenges of machine tool design.


A comparison of Linear and Conventional Electromechanical Drives
G. Pritschow (1)  
STC M,  47/2/1998,  P.541
Keywords: Linear motors, Ball screw drives, Comparison, Velocity gain, Velocity, Acceleration
Abstract : This publication deals with advantages and characteristics of linear drives in comparison with the conven255tional electromechanical drives and discusses suitable applications. Due to their high cost per axis, linear drives are mainly appropriate for some special applications such as high speed machining.


Management of variable production networks-visions, management and tools
H.P.Wiendahl (1), K. Helms, M. Hoebig  
STC O,  47/2/1998,  P.549
Keywords: Production Planning and Control, Controlling and Monitoring, Co-operative Manufacturing
Abstract : Confronted with constant structural changes in society and the manufacturing industry, enterprises have under255taken several innovative activities for the optimization of their processes. One approach representing an ex255tremely fast adaptation to quickly changing constraints involves building up a "Variable Production Network" (VPN). This is a dynamic co-operation system or network of companies for a specific period. The aim of this paper is to describe the consequences of this development in terms of logistic management tools and production technologies. It deals with the handling of growing external complexity whilst VPNs are being established. In the preparation we were supported by contributions from W. Eversheim, F.L. Krause and H.J.J. Kals, for which we thank very much.


Design for Precision: current status and trends
P. Schellekens (2) , N. Rosielle, H. Vermeulen, M. Vermeulen, S. Wetzels, W. Pril  
STC P,  47/2/1998,  P.557
Keywords: Design principles and features, predictive design, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility
Abstract : 'Design for Precision' reviews the status quo in Precision Engineering and concludes that today's precision engineers put repeatability at the top of their list. The design rules, patterns or principles, quoted here from various authors, are all time-proven insights, to get reproducible results with ultra precision machines and instruments. Modeling and analysis of different concepts, systems, and components is required to adapt the progressing design or to confirm its adequacy. Expenditure on such analysis is worthwhile to avoid realization of an inadequate design. However, creativity is more important in keeping the cost down by finding other than locally optimized solutions. World-wide, precision engineers agree on design principles, the challenge is to apply them creatively to obtain a thought-out design. In today's most accurate machines, advanced techniques are applied for compensation of e.g. residual geometric errors, errors caused by machine dynamics, or thermo-mechanically induced errors. Future developments in Precision Engineering require nanometre- or even subnanometre positioning255 and measuring accuracy, demanding new design concepts with integrated control and error compensation systems.


Progress in Assessing Surface and Subsurface integrity
D.A. Lucca (2) , E. Brinksmeier (1), G. Goch (2)  
STC S,  47/2/1998,  P.669
Keywords: surface, surface integrity, subsurface damage
Abstract : Recent progress in both the development of characterization tools for the assessment of surface integrity, and the experimental examination of surface alteration, is reported. Emphasis has been placed on emerging characterization techniques. Examples of newly developed methods, with the potential for assessing surface integrity, are also included. Experimental results on the nature and extent of surface alteration have been presented for the processing of metals, ceramics and glasses, and single crystal materials. Particular attention has been given to characterizing surface and subsurface integrity at fine length scales.