CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




New developments in Assembly Systems
H. Makino (1) , T. Arai (2)  
STC A,  43/2/1994,  P.501
Keywords: Assembling, Flexibility, System
Abstract : In the modern manufacturing, flexibility of a manufacturing system is essential in order to respond to frequent model changes and mixed production. Assembly robots and other flexible systems have been used to solve the problem. In this report, dedicated assembly machines, flexible assembly systems and manual assembly lines are investigated and discussed. Various configurations of the systems such as cells, lines and reconfigurable systems have been studied from the viewpoint of products flow and parts flow. Future trends are also discussed.


Machining of holes - Developments in drilling technology
H.K. Toenshoff (1), W. Spintig, W. Koenig (1), A. Neises  
STC C,  43/2/1994,  P.551
Keywords: Cutting, Drilling, Tool Material
Abstract : Drilling and similar processes such as reaming, tapping and counter boring are often the cycle time defining operations in linked automated manufacturing systems. They are, as a rule, one of the last operations that are carried out on workpieces, when a lot of time and money has already been invested in the parts. Therefore tools are required for drilling which are capable of coping with cutting parameters that achieve an economic use of the tool, demonstrate high process reliability and thereby reduce the total amount of scrap or costly rework. The new drilling tool materials like carbides, cermets, ceramics and hard coatings have been developed in the last years with an dramatically increase of tool life and cutting parameters. The new developments in drilling technology are shown in the following paper.


Sensors in laser machining
G. Chryssolouris (1)  
STC E,  43/2/1994,  P.513
Keywords: Laser Machining, Process Control, Sensors
Abstract : The goal of laser machining is to maximize the material removal rate, subject to quality constraints. Current industrial practice relies on trial-and-error to find acceptable process parameters. This is time-consuming, does not necessarily result in optimal operating conditions, and does not allow the adaptation of the process parameters to the actual process conditions. An alternative approach is a closed-loop control scheme based on in-process sensing. This paper describes and discusses several techniques for in-255process sensing of laser machining.


Synergy of laser material processing and metal forming
M. Geiger (1)  
STC F,  43/2/1994,  P.563
Keywords: Forming, Laser Material Processing, Sheetmetal
Abstract : It will be shown, on the basis of selected examples in the field of metal forming, how metal forming and laser beam processing can be combined in a synergetic way. A characteristic of metal forming is its ability for large scale manufacturing with high quality. Laser material processing is characterized by a high process, product, and quantity flexibility. Synergetic combinations of both processes enable completely new solutions for products and technologies. Although most of these developments are still in their initial phase, the first industrial applications have already proved their potential economical viability.


Applications of artificial intelligence in grinding
W.B. Rowe (1), L. Yan, I. Inasaki (1), S. Malkin (1)  
STC G,  43/2/1994,  P.521
Keywords: Grinding, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Control
Abstract : The application of AI technologies using modem computers and controllers is seen as a way forward to produce higher quality com255ponents more efficiently with smaller batch sizes and more frequent changeovers. Users continue to demand better accuracy, surface integrity, and shorter cycle times with reduced operator intervention and increased flexibility. This paper reviews research into the use of AI methods to harness the knowledge and skills required to plan, set-up, operate and control grinding processes. Basic AI concepts are introduced and discussed particularly in the context of application to grinding. Two main trends are evidenced in the development of AI technologies in grinding: desktop systems to assist tool and parameter selection and self-optimizing systems inte255grated within the machine controller. It is predicted that future developments will favor increasing communication between these two levels of control within a CIM environment. The development of modular systems which are sufficiently robust to plan, super255vise and control abrasive processes requires ongoing research and development.


Management and control of complexity in manufacturing
H.P. Wiendahl (1), P. Scholtissek  
STC O,  43/2/1994,  P.533
Keywords: Manufacturing, Modelling, Optimization
Abstract : The manufacturing process in industry calls for new answers to deal with growing complexity, which has its origin in the globalization of business, demand for systems instead of single products, introduction of new materials and technologies and consideration of life-cycle aspects. Companies react by diversification into business fields and within their firms by segmentation of systems. In contrast to this the scientific community presents solutions for structures with growing complexity. The aim of the paper is to make us aware of this development and to encourage ourselves to direct our research towards concepts which reduce complexity and support simplicity.


Gloss and surface topography
D.J. Whitehouse (1), D.K. Bowen, V.C. Venkatesh (1), P. Lonardo (1), C.A. Brown  
STC S,  43/2/1994,  P.541
Abstract : Optical reflection and dispersion from surfaces are examined. Some of the early experiments are reviewed. This is followed by a consideration of conventional and more recent theoretical approaches. Applications of gloss are discussed with respect to manufacturing engineering and finally considerations of colour and surface interrogation by x-rays are given.