CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Symbiotic human-robot collaborative assembly
L. Wang (1), R. Gao (1), J. Vancza (1), J. Krüger (2), X.V. Wang, S. Makris (2), G. Chryssolouris (1)  
STC A,  68/2/2019,  P.701
Keywords: Assembly, Robot, Human-robot collaboration
Abstract : In human-robot collaborative assembly, robots are often required to dynamically change their pre-planned tasks to collaborate with human operators in a shared workspace. However, the robots used today are controlled by pre-generated rigid codes that cannot support effective human-robot collaboration. In response to this need, multi-modal yet symbiotic communication and control methods have been a focus in recent years. These methods include voice processing, gesture recognition, haptic interaction, and brainwave perception. Deep learning is used for classification, recognition and context awareness identification. Within this context, this keynote provides an overview of symbiotic human-robot collaborative assembly and highlights future research directions.


Machining of biocompatible materials - Recent advances
Dragos Axinte (1), Yuebin Guo (2), Zhirong Liao, Albert J. Shih (2), Rachid M’Saoubi (1), Naohiko Sugita (2)  
STC C,  68/2/2019,  P.629
Keywords: Cutting, Biomedical, Biocompatible materials
Abstract : Machining of biocompatible materials is facing the fundamental challenges due to the specific material properties as well as the application requirements. Firstly, this paper presents a review of various materials which the medical industry needs to machine, then comments on the advances in the understanding of their specific cutting mechanisms. Finally it reviews the machining processes that the industry employs for different applications. This highlights the specific functional requirements that need to be considered when machining biocompatible materials and the associated machines and tooling. An analysis of the scientific and engineering challenges and opportunities related to this topic are presented.

 STC Cross-STC 

Manufacturing of Advanced Smart Tooling for Metal Forming
Jian Cao (1), Ekkard Brinksmeier (1), Mingwang Fu, Robert X. Gao (1), Biao Liang, Marion Merklein (1), Michael Schmidt (2), Jun Yanagimoto (1)  
STC Cross-STC,  68/2/2019,  P.605
Keywords: Metal forming, Integration, Smart tooling
Abstract : Forming is widely used due to its high efficiency in material utilization and its high production rate in general. Most forming processes control the geometry of final products through a set of tooling. The increasing demands on lightweight products have challenged the performances and functionalities of tooling. This paper provides a systematic review of recent advancements related to tooling performance and functionalities, including tool materials, tooling fabrication processes (e.g., machining, heat treatment, coating, surface texturing, and additive manufacturing), sensing, and data analytics. Finally, recommendations on future research directions for metal forming tooling are provided.

 STC Dn 

Development capabilities for smart products
Tetsuo Tomiyama (1), Eric Lutters (1), Rainer Stark (2), Michael Abramovici (2)  
STC Dn,  68/2/2019,  P.727
Keywords: Design, Product development, Model-based systems engineering
Abstract : Smart products supported by new step-changing technologies, such as Internet of Things and artificial intelligence, are now emerging in the market. Smart products are cyber physical systems with services through Internet connection. For example, smart vehicles equipped with advanced embedded intelligence are connected to other vehicles, people, and environment, and offer innovative data-driven services. Since smart products are softwareintensive, data-driven, and service-conscious, their development clearly needs new capabilities underpinned by advanced tools, methods, and models. This paper reviews the status and trends of these emerging development technologies such as model-based systems engineering and digital twin.


Visualization of electro-physical and chemical machining processes
Masanori Kunieda (1), Ludger Overmeyer (2), Andreas Klink (2)  
STC E,  68/2/2019,  P.751
Keywords: Process monitoring, In-process measurement, Visualization
Abstract : This paper aims to visualize spatio-temporal phenomena in electro physical and chemical processes in order to understand machining mechanisms and to achieve a technological breakthrough. In situ measurement methods to visualize the time evolution of stress, strain, temperatures, fluid velocities, and species density distributions, together with 2D or 3D images of the workpieces being processed are summarized. Applications of these methods to fundamental studies on electrical discharge machining, electrochemical machining, laser processing and additive manufacturing are introduced. Signal recording and processing technologies and real time monitoring enabling closed-loop feedback control are also discussed.


Models and modelling for process limits in metal forming
Wolfram Volk (2), Peter Groche (1), Alexander Brosius (2), Andrea Ghiotti (2), Brad L. Kinsey (2), Mathias Liewald (3), Lukasz Madej (2), Junying Min, Jun Yanagimoto (1)  
STC F,  68/2/2019,  P.775
Keywords: Modelling, Metal forming, Process limits
Abstract : Modelling of metal forming processes is an essential task of production engineering. Due to the latest technological developments, a huge variety of models is already available and extending continuously. Thus, it is important to find a suitable model. This paper gives an overview on the common classification and characterization of modelling and models in metal forming, as well as introduces a model selection procedure. Based on this classification, various relevant process limits for metal forming are investigated regarding existing models. The conclusion of the paper shows open topics as well as upcoming challenges in modelling process limits in metal forming.


Abrasive processes for micro parts and structures
J.C. Aurich (1), B. Kirsch, D. Setti, D. Axinte (1), A. Beaucamp (2), P. Butler-Smith, H. Yamaguchi (2)  
STC G,  68/2/2019,  P.653
Keywords: Micro machining, Miniaturization, Micro structures
Abstract : The demand for miniaturized products and functionalized parts is increasing, and many such products are made of hard and brittle materials machined by abrasive processes. The first part of this keynote paper is dedicated to a discussion of micro parts and micro structures machined – at least in part - by abrasive processes, followed by a discussion of the associated abrasive processes. The strengths and limitations of these processes, among which include dicing, micro grinding, micro abrasive blasting, and vibration and magnet field assisted finishing are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of future trends in the field.


Robots in Machining
Alexander Verl (2), Anna Valente (2), Shreyes Melkote (1), Christian Brecher (1), Erdem Ozturk (2), Lutfi Taner Tunc  
STC M,  68/2/2019,  P.799
Keywords: Robot, Machining, Process planning, Control
Abstract : Robotic machining centers offer diverse advantages: large operation reach with large reorientation capability, and a low cost, to name a few. Many challenges have slowed down the adoption or sometimes inhibited the use of robots for machining tasks. This paper deals with the current usage and status of robots in machining, as well as the necessary modelling and identification for enabling optimization, process planning and process control. Recent research addressing deburring, milling, incremental forming, polishing or thin wall machining is presented. We discuss various processes in which robots need to deal with significant process forces while fulfilling their machining task.


Global Production Networks: Design and Operation
Gisela Lanza (2), Kasra Ferdows, Sami Kara (1), Dimitris Mourtzis (1), Günther Schuh (1), Jozsef Vancza (1), Lihui Wang (1), Hans-Peter Wiendahl (1)  
STC O,  68/2/2019,  P.823
Keywords: Production, Network, Global Production
Abstract : Industrial companies are nowadays acting in global production networks (GPNs). A comprehensive scientific overview of those networks is still missing. To close this gap, a framework for designing and operating GPNs is introduced. It structures influencing factors, challenges, enablers and outlines the need for decision support systems. The state of the art in designing and operating GPNs is reviewed. Three trends are identified that help to transform historical grown networks into changeable GPNs with a focused network footprint. In conclusion, a need for future research in forming the production strategy, designing the network footprint and managing the network is given.


Geometrical metrology for metal additive manufacturing
R.K. Leach (2), D. Bourell, S. Carmignato (2), A. Donmez (2), N. Senin, W. Dewulf (2)  
STC P,  68/2/2019,  P.677
Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Metrology, Surface measurement
Abstract : The needs, requirements, and on-going and future research issues in geometrical metrology for metal additive manufacturing are addressed. The infrastructure under development for specification standards in AM is presented, and the research on geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing for AM is reviewed. Post-process metrology is covered, including the measurement of surface form, texture and internal features. Inprocess requirements and developments in AM are discussed along with the materials metrology that is pertinent to geometrical measurement. Issues of traceability, including benchmarking artefacts, are presented. The information in the review sections is summarized in a synthesis of current requirements and future research topics.


On-machine and in-process surface metrology for precision manufacturing
W. Gao (1), H. Haitjema (1), F.Z. Fang (1), R.K. Leach (2), C.F. Cheung (2), E. Savio (1), J.M. Linares (1)  
STC S,  68/2/2019,  P.843
Keywords: Surface, Metrology, Manufacturing
Abstract : On-machine and in-process surface metrology are important for quality control in manufacturing of precision surfaces. The classifications, requirements and tasks of on-machine and in-process surface metrology are addressed. The state-of-the-art on-machine and in-process measurement systems and sensor technologies are presented. Error separation algorithms for removing machine tool errors, which is specially required in on-machine and in-process surface metrology, are overviewed, followed by a discussion on calibration and traceability. Advanced techniques on sampling strategies, measurement systems-machine tools interface, data flow and analysis as well as feedbacks for compensation manufacturing are then demonstrated. Future challenges and developing trends are also discussed.