CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Life cycle engineering of lightweight structures
Christoph Herrmann (2), Wim Dewulf (2), Michael Hauschild (1), Alexander Kaluza, Sami Kara (1), Steve Skerlos  
STC A,  67/2/2018,  P.651
Keywords: Life cycle, Methodology, Lightweight structures
Abstract : Lightweight structures are increasingly necessary to meet current engineering requirements. Weight reduction in diverse applications such as automobiles or machine tools is achieved either by using less material, by substituting material with a lighter one which provides more functionality per unit of weight. To be an effective enabler for sustainability, lightweight structures should result in lower environmental impacts per functional unit when compared to conventional structures on a life cycle basis. However, applying new materials and manufacturing processes often lead to an increase in environmental impacts from the raw materials and production stage of the life cycle. Furthermore, end-of-life disassembly and recycling may become more difficult. In addition, the expected efficiency gains from the use of lightweight structures depends on how the overall market and technical systems respond to them. Consequently, the environmental evaluation of lightweight structures in engineering entails various methodological challenges. Organised around a life cycle engineering framework with a focus on eco-effectiveness, this paper provides a comprehensive review of lightweight structure applications and the challenges and opportunities they present in a life cycle engineering context.


Deep hole drilling
D. Biermann (1), F. Bleicher (2), U. Heisel (1), F. Klocke (1), H.-C. Möhring (2), A. Shih (2)  
STC C,  67/2/2018,  P.673
Keywords: Deep hole drilling, Machining, Surface
Abstract : Deep hole drilling processes, which differ significantly from conventional drilling processes, are relevant for a lot of different applications where holes with high length-to-diameter-ratios and very good qualities are necessary. This paper gives an overview of different methods, which are established to produce bore holes with demanding aspects related to diameter, length-todiameter- ratio, bore hole quality, workpiece materials and complex internal contours. Beside the detailed explanation of the deep hole drilling methods and tools also the fundamentals of the deep hole drilling principle are explained and completely new developed figures and tables summarize the state of the art. In addition for the most important areas the latest results of process and tool development are included.

 STC Cross-STC 

Composite Materials Parts Manufacturing
Jürgen Fleischer (1), Roberto Teti (1), Gisela Lanza (2), Paul Tarisai Mativenga (2), Hans-Christian Möhring (2), Alessandra Caggiano  
STC Cross-STC,  67/2/2018,  P.603
Keywords: Composite, Processing, Overall Process Chain
Abstract : Composite materials parts manufacturing is based on the interactions of simultaneous as well as consecutive process steps and disciplines influencing the composite part properties and an economical production. A wide range of possible composite materials and processing technologies necessitate a holistic view of the product life cycle to ensure the best possible economic and ecological outcome. Current studies on new manufacturing and machining processes are intending a higher productivity and machinability, whereas new quality control approaches are enhancing the desired product quality. Furthermore, recent research addressing joining concepts and recycling methods has a huge impact on the competitiveness to conventional materials. Focusing on latest academic research approaches and current industrial application fields, this paper gives an overview of various process steps in the overall product life cycle of composite materials parts manufacturing.
Bio-inspired textures for functional applications
Ajay P. Malshe (1), Salil Bapat, K. P. Rajurkar (1), H. Haitjema (2)  
STC Cross-STC,  67/2/2018,  P.627
Keywords: Surface texture, Surface Modification, Bio-inspired
Abstract : Textures are abundantly exploited in nature for securing superior functionalities including adhesion, color manipulation, anti-reflection, and drag management. Over millions of years, these advanced properties are endowed to various organisms on the planet to survive and adapt in harsh environmental conditions. Characteristics such as feature size, shape, periodicity, aspect ratio, orientation and hierarchy are critical in nature’s texture ‘tool-box’. Manufacturing of cutting-edge products require multi-functionalities through surfaces for efficiency, durability and sustainability for improving the quality of life of growing population. This paper reviews and discusses convergence and underlying science and engineering of well proven natural strategies of surface textures and their effective synthetic implementation in engineered products.

 STC Dn 

Tolerancing: managing uncertainty from conceptual design to final product
Edward Morse (3), Jean-Yves Dantan (2), Nabil Anwer (2), Rikard Söderberg (2), Giovanni Moroni (2), Ahmed Qureshi, Xiangqian Jiang (1), Luc Mathieu (1)  
STC Dn,  67/2/2018,  P.695
Keywords: Design, Tolerancing, Uncertainty
Abstract : Variability is unavoidable in the realization of products. While design must specify ideal geometry, it shall also describe limits of variability (tolerances) that must be met in order to maintain proper product function. Although tolerancing is a mature field, new manufacturing processes and design methodologies are creating new avenues of research, and modelling standards must also evolve to support these processes. In addition, the study of uncertainty has produced widely-accepted methods of quantifying variability, and modern tolerancing tools should support these methods. The challenges introduced by new processes and design methodologies continue to make tolerancing research a fertile and productive area.


Advances in Macro-Scale Laser Processing
Michael Schmidt (2), Michael Zäh (2), Lin Li (1), Joost Duflou (1), Ludger Overmeyer (2), Frank Vollertsen (1)  
STC E,  67/2/2018,  P.719
Keywords: Laser, Processing, Laser welding
Abstract : Laser material processing is a technology with an increasing number of industrial applications, especially for aviation and automotive. The present keynote paper focusses on the advances in macro-scale laser processing, meaning that the laser generated structures are large enough to be visible with the naked eye. Next to that, also the reasons for the advances, especially the improvements regarding the power and the beam quality of the laser sources, the higher capabilities of the systems technologies and an increasing process understanding are shown. Nevertheless, challenges like a holistic understanding of the physical phenomena and the evolution of defects in some processing methods remain to be solved in future.


Flexibility in Metal Forming
D.Y. Yang(1), M. Bambach, J. Cao (1), J.R. Duflou (1), P. Groche (1), T. Kuboki (2), A. Sterzing, A.E. Tekkaya (1), C.W Lee  
STC F,  67/2/2018,  P.743
Keywords: Flexibility, Metal forming, Manufacturing
Abstract : Flexibility in metal forming is needed more than ever before due to rapidly changing customer demands. It paves the way for a better control of uncertainties in development and application of metal forming processes. Although flexibility has been pursued from various viewpoints in terms of machines, material, process, working environment and properties, etc., a thorough study of the concept was undertaken in order to with problems of manufacturing competiveness and tackle new challenges of manufacturing surroundings. Therefore, in this paper, flexibility in forming is reviewed from the viewpoints of process, material, manufacturing environment, new process combinations and machine-system-software interactions.


Fixed abrasive machining of non-metallic materials
Albert J. Shih (2), Berend Denkena (1), Thilo Grove, David Curry, Hong Hocheng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Hitoshi Ohmori (1), Kazutoshi Katahira (2), Z.J Pei  
STC G,  67/2/2018,  P.767
Keywords: Abrasive machining, Non-metallic materials, Engineered grinding tool
Abstract : This paper summaries advancements in fixed abrasive machining of non-metallic materials, which include reinforced concretes, stones, rocks, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, metal and ceramic matrix composites, wood, wood-fiber plastic composite, biomaterials (bone, plaque, and enamel), and structural and electronic ceramics. The broad impacts, diverse applications, and innovations of fixed abrasive machining processes are presented. Benefits of the engineered deterministic distribution of abrasive grain grinding tools are demonstrated. Industrial perspectives and future research on innovative fixed abrasive machining technologies that enable new processes and improve the productivity are highlighted.


Value creation in production: Reconsideration from interdisciplinary approaches
Toshiya Kaihara (2), Nariaki Nishino (2), Kanji Ueda† (1), Mitchell Tseng (1), Jozsef Vancza (1), Paul Schönsleben (2), Roberto Teti (1), Takeshi Takenaka  
STC O,  67/2/2018,  P.791
Keywords: Production, Emergent synthesis, Value creation
Abstract : This paper presents reconsideration of value creation in production from various aspects of value viewpoints in several disciplines such as production engineering, social sciences, and human sciences. The focal point of investigations is value co-creation by the provision of products and services in and for society. In the past, some methods of social sciences and others proved to be useful in making production more efficient. At present, such methods must help to realise value creation. In fact, production must become more effective in response to human needs in social, economic, and environmental dimensions. Along with the theoretical apparatus, this paper presents some case studies indicating the importance of value creation in production, followed by future perspectives of value cocreation in production.


Modelling and traceability for computationally-intensive precision engineering and metrology
J.M. Linares (1), G. Goch (1), A. Forbes, J.M. Sprauel, A. Clément (1), F. Haertig, W. Gao (1)  
STC P,  67/2/2018,  P.815
Keywords: Geometric modelling, Error, Computational accuracy
Abstract : In contrast to measurements of the dimensions of machined parts realized by machine tools and characterized by CMMs, software results are not fully traceable and certified. Indeed, a computer is not a perfect machine and binary encoding of real numbers leads to rounding of successive intermediate calculations that may lead to globally false results. This is the case for poor implementations and poorly conditioned algorithms. Therefore, accurate geometric modelling and implementations will be detailed. Based on the works of National Metrology Institutes, the problem of software traceability will also be discussed. Some prospects for this complex task will finally be suggested.


Multiscale analyses and characterizations of surface topographies
Christopher A. Brown, Hans N. Hansen (1), Xiang Jane Jiang (1), Francois Blateyron (3), Johan Berglund (3), Nicola Sening, Tomasz Bartkowiak, Barnali Dixon, Gaëtan Le Goïc, Yann Quinsat, W. James Stemp, Mary Kathryn Thompson (3), Peter S. Ungar, E. Hassan  
STC S,  67/2/2018,  P.839
Keywords: Surface, Metrology, Roughness
Abstract : This work studies multiscale analyses and characterizations of surface topographies from the engineering and scientific literature with an emphasis on production engineering research and design. It highlights methods that provide strong correlations between topographies and performance or topographies and processes, and methods that can confidently discriminate topographies that were processed or that perform differently. These methods have commonalities in geometric characterizations at certain scales, which are observable with statistics and measurements. It also develops a semantic and theoretical framework and proposes a new system for organizing and designating multiscale analyses. Finally, future possibilities for multiscale analyses are discussed.