CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Cooperation of Human and Machines in Assembly Lines
J. Krüger (2), T.K. Lien (2), A. Verl (2)  
STC A,  58/2/2009,  P.0628
Keywords: Cooperative assembly, Robot, Man–machine system
Abstract : Flexibility and changeability of assembly processes require a close cooperation between the worker and the automated assembly system. The interaction between human and robots improves the efficiency of individual complex assembly processes, particularly when a robot serves as an intelligent assistant. The paper gives a survey about forms of human–machine cooperation in assembly and available technologies that support the cooperation. Organizational and economic aspects of cooperative assembly including efficient component supply and logistics are also discussed.


Burrs - Analysis, Control and Removal
J.C. Aurich (1), D. Dornfeld (1), P.J. Arrazola (3), V. Franke, L. Leitz, S. Min (2)  
STC C,  58/2/2009,  P.0519
Keywords: Machining, Burr, Burr control
Abstract : Increasing demands on function and performance call for burr-free workpiece edges after machining. Since deburring is a costly and non-value-added operation, the understanding and control of burr formation is a research topic with high relevance to industrial applications. Following a review of burr classifications along with the corresponding measurement technologies, burr formation mechanisms in machining are described. Deburring and burr control are two possible ways to deal with burrs. For both, an insight into current research results are presented. Finally, a number of case studies on burr formation, control and deburring along with their economic implications are presented.

 STC Dn 

Design methodologies: Industrial and educational applications
T. Tomiyama (1), P. Gu (1), Y. Jin, D. Lutters (2), Ch. Kind, F. Kimura (1)  
STC Dn,  58/2/2009,  P.0543
Keywords: Design, Design method, Design education
Abstract : The field of Design Theory and Methodology has a rich collection of research results that has been taught at educational institutions as well as applied to design practices. First, this keynote paper describes some methods to classify them. It then illustrates individual theories and methodologies focusing on industrial and educational use. Theories and methodologies that are found most practically useful are ‘‘math-based methods, ‘‘methodologies to achieve concrete design goals, and ‘‘process methodologies, while at educational institutes in addition to these, traditional design methodologies are also taught. The paper discusses this gap between practical and educational usages.


Ion Beam, Focused Ion Beam, and Plasma Discharge Machining
D.M. Allen (1), P. Shore (2), R.W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O'rien, S. Marson, W. O'Neill  
STC E,  58/2/2009,  P.0647
Keywords: Ion Beam Machining, Focused Ion Beam Machining, Plasma discharge machining
Abstract : Non-conventional methods of machining are used for many engineering applications where the traditional processes fail to be cost-effective. Such processes include Ion Beam Machining (IBM), focused ion beam (FIB) machining and plasma discharge machining. The mechanisms of material removal and associated hardware and software developed for industrial applications of these fascinating electrophysical and chemical machining processes are reviewed together with the latest research findings.


Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components
F. Vollertsen (1), D. Biermann, H.N. Hansen (1), I.S. Jawahir (1), K. Kuzman (2)  
STC F,  58/2/2009,  P.0566
Keywords: Forming, Machining, Size effects
Abstract : In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim of this paper is to give a systematic review on such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting processes.


Industrial challenges in grinding
J.F.G. Oliveira (1), E.J. Silva, C. Guo (2), F. Hashimoto (1)  
STC G,  58/2/2009,  P.0663
Keywords: Grinding, Optimization, Industry
Abstract : This keynote paper aims at analyzing relevant industrial demands for grinding research. The chosen focus is to understand what are the main research challenges in the extensive industrial use of the process. Since the automotive applications are the most important driving forces for grinding development, the paper starts with an analysis on the main trends in more efficient engines and the changes in their components that will affect the grinding performance. A view from 23 machine tool builders is also presented based on a survey made in interviews and during the EMO and IMTS machine tool shows. Case studies received by the STC G members were used to show how research centers and industries are collaborating. A view from the authors and the final conclusions show hot topics for future grinding research.


Interaction of Manufacturing Process and Machine Tool
C. Brecher (2), M. Esser, S. Witt  
STC M,  58/2/2009,  P.0588
Keywords: Machine, Modelling, Process–machine interaction
Abstract : Analysing the machine tool and the machining process individually is necessary in order to tackle the challenges that both have to offer. Nevertheless, to fully understand the manufacturing system, e.g. vibrations, deflections or thermal deformations, the interactions between the manufacturing process and the machine tool also have to be analysed. In cutting, grinding and forming there are important effects that can only be explained through these interaction phenomena. This paper presents the current state of research in process–machine interactions for a wide variety of manufacturing processes. It is based on the findings of the CIRP research group ‘‘Process Machine Interaction (PMI) and on the international publications in this field. Cutting with defined and undefined cutting edges as well as sheet and bulk metal forming are the key processes. The emphasis is on understanding, modelling and simulating all modes of interaction. Additional needs of research in process–machine interaction are identified for future projects.


Value Creation and Decision-making in Sustainable Society
K. Ueda (1), T. Takenaka, J. Vancza (1), L. Monostori (1)  
STC O,  58/2/2009,  P.0681
Keywords: Emergent synthesis, Sustainability, Value creation
Abstract : Manufacturing exists to create value. However, historically, discussion of economic issues in manufacturing primarily emphasizes cost. It is becoming more difficult to understand and control values of products and services in response to rapid globalization and networking. This paper presents a discussion of the nature of value considering a history of axiology, design problems of artifacts, social dilemmas, network externalities, and sustainability. Promising academic methodologies are presented herein with emphasis on transdisciplinary and synthetic approaches. Value creation models based on Emergent Synthesis and co-creative decision-making are presented. This paper involves some important study examples of service and production toward sustainable value creation in society.


Multisensor Data Fusion in Dimensional Metrology
A. Weckenmann (1), X. Jiang (2), K.-D. Sommer, U. Neuschaefer-Rube, J. Seewig, L. Shaw, T. Estler (1)  
STC P,  58/2/2009,  P.0701
Keywords: Dimensional metrology, Sensor, Data fusion
Abstract : Multisensor data fusion in dimensional metrology is used in order to get holistic, more accurate and reliable information about a workpiece based on several or multiple measurement values from one or more sensors. The theoretical background originates in classical mathematics and statistics, in methods of artificial intelligence (AI) and in the Bayesian fusion approach. Sensor technologies and sensor characteristics influence the data fusion process and determine the gain of information compared to the application of a single sensor. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous sensor configurations lead to complementary, competitive and cooperative information integration with specific advantages depending on the application. The scope includes image fusion, tactile and optical coordinate metrology, coherent and incoherent opticalmeasuring techniques, computed tomography as well as scanning probe microscopes.


Surface technology for automotive engineering
K. Bewilogua, G. Bräuer, A. Dietz, J. Gäbler, G. Goch (1), B. Karpuschewski (1), B. Szyszka  
STC S,  58/2/2009,  P.0608
Keywords: Coating, Chemical vapour deposition (CVD), Physical vapour deposition (PVD)
Abstract : The presented paper describes the role of surface technologies in the automotive industry. Various hard coatings like nitrides, diamond and cBN are used on tools for the manufacturing process. Due to their high hardness and low coefficient of friction, diamond-like carbon films will be indispensable for engine and power train components. The improvement of automotive glazings by optimization of optical and thermal properties of the glass is an ongoing development task. Coatings with switchable transmission, thin film solar cells as self-cleaning and self-healing surfaces will be features in the car of the future. Various atmospheric pressure and low pressure deposition processes are available. In this paper low pressure plasma and electrochemical deposition are in focus.