CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Efficiency and feasibility of product disassembly: A case-based study
J.R. Duflou (2), G. Seliger (1), S. Kara (2), Y. Umeda, A. Ometto, B. Willems  
STC A,  57/2/2008,  P.583
Keywords: Disassembly, Productivity, End-of-life treatment
Abstract : The productivity associated with commonly available disassembly methods today seldomly makes disassembly the preferred end-of-life solution formassive take back product streams. Systematic reuse of parts or components, or recycling of pure material fractions are often not achievable in an economically sustainable way. In this paper a case-based review of current disassembly practices is used to analyse the factors influencing disassembly feasibility. Data mining techniques were used to identify major factors influencing the profitability of disassembly operations. Case characteristics such as involvement of the product manufacturer in the end-of-life treatment and continuous ownership are some of the important dimensions. Economic models demonstrate that the efficiency of disassembly operations should be increased an order of magnitude to assure the competitiveness of ecologically preferred, disassembly oriented end-of-life scenarios for large waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) streams. Technological means available to increase the productivity of the disassembly operations are summarized. Automated disassembly techniques can contribute to the robustness of the process, but do not allow to overcome the efficiency gap if not combined with appropriate product design measures. Innovative, reversible joints, collectively activated by external trigger signals, form a promising approach to low cost, mass disassembly in this context. A short overview of the state-of-the-art in the development of such self-disassembling joints is included.


Manufacturing of cylindrical gears by generating cutting processes: A critical synthesis of analysis methods
K.-D. Bouzakis (1), E. Lili, N. Michailidis (2), O. Friderikos  
STC C,  57/2/2008,  P.676
Keywords: Cylindrical gears, Generating processes, Cutting
Abstract : The eternal goal achieving optimum gear manufacturing results in a quick and flexible way can be obtained by efficient machine tools and thorough processes know how. Gear manufacturing is associated with complicated generating kinematics, chip formation and tool wear mechanisms. To capture quantitatively the tool wear progress and the cutting loads, empirical, analytical, numerical as well as FEM-based methods describing the chip geometry and predicting the tool life and cutting forces have been developed. The application of innovative tool materials and coatings, optimized tool geometries and appropriate conduct of reconditioning procedures contribute to the significant reducing of the manufacturing cost.

 STC Dn 

Recent advances in engineering design optimisation: Challenges and future trends
R. Roy (2), S. Hinduja (1), R. Teti (1)  
STC Dn,  57/2/2008,  P.697
Keywords: Design, Optimisation, Algorithm
Abstract : Traditional engineering design optimisation which is the process of identifying the right combination of product parameters is often done manually, time consuming and involves a step by step approach. This paper identifies recent approaches to automating the manual optimisation process and the challenges that it presents to the engineering community. Engineering design optimisation is classified based on design evaluation effort and degrees of freedom viewpoints. An overview of different approaches for design optimisation is presented. The study identifies scalability as the major challenge for design optimisation techniques. Large-scale optimisation requires significant computing power and efficient algorithms such as swarm intelligence.


Direct writing technology—Advances and developments
K.K.B. Hon (1), L. Li (1), I.M. Hutchings  
STC E,  57/2/2008,  P.601
Keywords: Deposition, Miniaturization, Direct writing
Abstract : Direct writing (DW), also known as digital writing or digital printing, is a family of flexible multi-length scale processes for the deposition of functional materials to form simple linear or complex conformal structures on a substrate. This paper provides an overview of key DW technologies and their process characteristics under a unified classification system. In DW, a variety of mechanisms and energy modes such as inkjet, laser, mechanical pressure and tips are used to create material transfer to produce features from the nm to the mm range. This new group of additive on-demand processes complements existing manufacturing methods especially in productminiaturization and geometrical footprint reduction due to its conformal writing capability. The range of materials is exceptionally wide, ranging from metallics, ceramics, dielectrics and polymers to biomaterials. The thickness of the layer ranges from a monolayer of molecules to hundreds of micrometres. As DW is a scalable process, it is capable of high-throughput volume production, especially in microelectronics. Industrial applications have been expanding and numerous niche examples are given to illustrate meso-, micro- and nano-scale applications. Finally, challenges for its future development are also discussed.


Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes for metals
A. Azushima (1), R. Kopp (1), A. Korhonen (1), D.Y. Yang (1), F. Micari (1), G.D. Lahoti (1), P. Groche (2), J. Yanagimoto (2), N. Tsuji, A. Rosochowski, A. Yanagida  
STC F,  57/2/2008,  P.716
Keywords: Forming, Metal, Strain
Abstract : Processes of severe plastic deformation (SPD) are defined as metal forming processes in which a very large plastic strain is imposed on a bulk process in order to make an ultra-fine grained metal. The objective of the SPD processes for creating ultra-fine grained metal is to produce lightweight parts by using high strengthmetal for the safety and reliability of micro-parts and for environmental harmony. In this keynote paper, the fabrication process of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), accumulative rollbonding (ARB), high pressure torsion (HPT), and others are introduced, and the properties of metals processed by the SPD processes are shown. Moreover, the combined processes developed recently are also explained. Finally, the applications of the ultra-fine grained (UFG) metals are discussed.


Gear finishing by abrasive processes
B. Karpuschewski (1), H.-J. Knoche, M. Hipke  
STC G,  57/2/2008,  P.621
Keywords: Gear grinding, Honing, Process development
Abstract : Based on the position of hard finishing in the process chain of gear manufacturing, the dominant processes with a geometrically non-defined cutting edge are analysed. While processes like continuous profile grinding and discontinuous generating grinding with double cone discs became less important in the last couple of years, the processes continuous generating gear grinding, discontinuous profile grinding and honing of tooth flanks gain rising importance. The analyses of the processes include functionality, the development status, respectively, maturity as well as identifiable trends. Process superior aspects like dressing of the grinding wheel and honing rings and the problem of grinding burn will be considered and evaluated separately.


Multi-functional machine tool
T. Moriwaki (1)  
STC M,  57/2/2008,  P.736
Keywords: Machine tool, Machining center, Multi-functional
Abstract : The functions of metal cutting machine tools have been increasing to meet the demands of high productivity and high accuracy in machining complicated and difficult parts on one machine. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of multi-functional machine tools used for metal cutting, and their kinematic configurations, control and programming technologies. Design principles and assessment of multi-functional machine tools are discussed mainly taking examples of 5-axis machining centers. The paper also presents examples of latest multi-functional machine tools as well as current status of related supporting technologies.


The incoming global technological and industrial revolution towards competitive sustainable manufacturing
F. Jovane (1), H. Yoshikawa (1), L. Alting (1), C.R. Boer (1), E. Westkaemper (1), D. Williams (1), M. Tseng (1), G. Seliger (1), A.M. Paci (3)  
STC O,  57/2/2008,  P.641
Keywords: Sustainable development, Manufacturing, Manufuture
Abstract : The major global challenges we are facing today need to be addressed in the multifaceted context of economy, society, environment and technology (ESET). In recent years, the consensus of calling for sustainable development (SD) and implementation has emerged. Along with this belief, high added value, knowledge-based, competitive sustainable manufacturing (CSM) has been widely considered as main enabler. This paper presents the necessary steps from economic growth to sustainable development. The reference model for proactive action (RMfPA) is proposed to develop and implement CSM, at national and global levels. Furthermore, we also review strategies to pursue CSM at the macro–meso–field level in addition to ongoing national initiatives in different countries and by international organizations. A case study concerning the European Manufuture initiative is cited. The overall results conclude that RMfPA is a good ground for pursuing CSM. Necessary actions by stakeholders at different levels, spanning from policymakers to Industry, University and Research Institutes, are also discussed. CIRP, as a global academy, can play a relevant role at strategic, scientific and technological levels for the incoming global technological and industrial revolution: CSM.


Geometric error measurement and compensation of machines — An update
H. Schwenke (2), W. Knapp (1), H. Haitjema (2), A. Weckenmann (1), R. Schmitt, F. Delbressine (2)  
STC P,  57/2/2008,  P.660
Keywords: Compensation, Accuracy, Numerical control (NC)
Abstract : For measuring machines and machine tools, geometrical accuracy is a key performance criterion. While numerical compensation is well established for CMMs, it is increasingly used on machine tools in addition to mechanical accuracy. This paper is an update on the CIRP keynote paper by Sartori and Zhang from 1995 [Sartori S, Zhang GX (1995) Geometric error measurement and compensation of machines, Annals of the CIRP 44(2):599–609]. Since then, numerical error compensation has gained immense importance for precision machining. This paper reviews the fundamentals of numerical error compensation and the available methods for measuring the geometrical errors of a machine. It discusses the uncertainties involved in different mapping methods and their application characteristics. Furthermore, the challenges for the use of numerical compensation for manufacturing machines are specified. Based on technology and market development, this work aims at giving a perspective for the role of numerical compensation in the future.


Advances in engineered surfaces for functional performance
A.A.G. Bruzzone (2), H.L. Costa, P.M. Lonardo (1), D.A. Lucca (1)  
STC S,  57/2/2008,  P.750
Keywords: Surface, Engineered surface, Engineering technology
Abstract : Surface phenomena play a decisive role in the behaviour of engineering parts; their understanding and control are fundamental to the development of many advanced fields, such as: electronics, information technology, energy, optics, tribology, biology and biomimetics. Engineered surfaces rely on the control of surface characteristics to obtain a desired functional performance. This paper reports the advances in the state of the art considering the relationships between the properties of functional surfaces, their applications and the technologies to engineer surfaces.