CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




The Application of Assembly and Automation Technologies to Healthcare Products
D.J. Williams (1), S. Ratchev, A. Chandra, H. Hirani  
STC A,  55/2/2006,  P.617
Keywords: Assembly, Automation, Healthcare product
Abstract : This keynote paper identifies some of the present and future opportunities and technical challenges for the application of assembly, process control and automation technologies in healthcare including the manufacture of current and emerging medical devices and pharmaceuticals. While healthcare is one of the fastest growing western markets, it has characteristics that differentiate it from other, more conventional markets and presents challenges in both the application of current technologies and the development of new technologies. These technologies are presented in the context of these characteristics. The paper also identifies other related manufacturing technology issues in healthcare, particularly those driven by cost reduction as a consequence of the economic impact of healthcare.


Recent Advances in Mechanical Micromachining
D. Dornfeld (1), S. Min, Y. Takeuchi (1)  
STC C,  55/2/2006,  P.745
Keywords: Micromachining, modelling, machine tools
Abstract : This paper reviews some of the main drivers, developments and future requirements in the field of micromanufacturing as related to the machining process from the perspective of the recent research and development literature. For the purposes of this paper micromachining includes creation of precise two and three dimensional workpieces with dimensions in the range of a few tens of nanometers to some few millimeters by cutting using defined geometry cutting tools. The review includes topics of process physics, including materials and microstructural effects, machine tools, tooling and sensing, workpiece and design issues, software and simulation tools, and other issues, e.g. surface and edge finish, and outlook for future developments.

 STC Dn 

Virtual Research Laboratory - a New Way to do Research
S.Tichkiewitch (1), M.Shpitalni (1), F. Krause (1)  
STC Dn,  55/2/2006,  P.769
Keywords: Co-operative project, Knowledge in production, Network of Excellence
Abstract : Through the VRL-KCiP network of excellence, Europe is able to federate many research teams in the field of design, production and innovation and thus preserve its common inheritance of manufacturing processes while carrying out a collaborative system of design that integrates a module of virtual production. Twenty research units, comprised of 220 researchers, decided to work together in order to provide a strong integration of their teams and thus break the fragmentation of European research in this area and work more efficiently. A new organisation of the research system can only lead to a clearer vision of research orientations, improvement in the quality of research by exploiting complementarities, the avoidance of duplication, and finally a better impact on industry for the good health of our society.


Micro and Nano Machining by Electro-Physical and Chemical Processes
K.P. Rajurkar (1), G. Levy (1), A. Malshe, M.M. Sundaram, J. McGeough (1), X. Hu, R. Resnick (3), A. De Silva (2)   
STC E,  55/2/2006,  P.643
Keywords: Micromachining, Nano fabrication
Abstract : The need for micro-features, components and products is rapidly increasing in diverse industries such as electronics, medical and aviation. Product miniaturization demands innovative manufacturing methods. Various existing macro-manufacturing processes are being modified to perform micro-scale manufacturing. Electro-physical and chemical micromachining processes play important role in this field due to their special material removal mechanisms. This paper reports the worldwide technical developments and state-of-the-art of electro-physical and chemical micromachining processes. Issues related to the supporting technologies such as standardization, metrology and equipment design are briefly assessed. Non-technological issues including environmental effects and education are also discussed.


Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperatures
R. Neugebauer (1), T. Altan (1), M. Geiger (1), M. Kleiner (1), A. Sterzing  
STC F,  55/2/2006,  P.793
Keywords: Metal, Forming, Temperature
Abstract : Due to the need to significantly reduce the part weights in automotive manufacturing, the use of lightweight materials becomes ever more important. Unfortunately, these materials are often associated with a limited cold formability. Due to this fact, production of large, complex sheet metal components using forming technology frequently entails increased expenditures. Moreover, processing high-strength materials requires correspondingly high processing forces and pressures. In order to find a solution to counter the disadvantages mentioned above, the use of elevated temperatures as a process parameter in forming operations represents a potential solution approach. The following paper will give an overview about research activities in the field of forming operations at elevated temperatures.


Advances in Modeling and Simulation of Grinding Processes
E. Brinksmeier (1), J.C. Aurich (2), E. Govekar (2), C. Heinzel, H.-W. Hoffmeister, F. Klocke (1), J. Peters (1), R. Rentsch, D.J. Stephenson (2), E. Uhlmann (2), K. Weinert (1), M. Wittmann  
STC G,  55/2/2006,  P.667
Keywords: Grinding Process, Modeling, Simulation
Abstract : In the last decade the relevance of modeling and simulation of grinding processes has significantly risen which is caused by industrial needs and is indicated by the number of publications and research activities in this area. This keynote paper results from a collaborative work within the STC G and gives an overview of the current state of the art in modeling and simulation of grinding processes: Physical process models (analytical and numerical models) and empirical process models (regression analysis, artificial neural net models) as well as heuristic process models (rule based models) are taken into account, and outlined with respect to their achievements in this paper. The models are characterized by the process parameters such as grinding force, grinding temperature, etc. as well as work results including surface topography and surface integrity. Further-more, the capabilities and the limitations of the presented model types and simulation approaches will be ex-emplified


Workpiece and Tool Handling in Metal Cutting Machines
J. Fleischer (2), B. Denkena (2), B. Winfough (2), M. Mori (2)  
STC M,  55/2/2006,  P.817
Keywords: Cutting Machine Tool, Workpiece Handling, Tool Handling
Abstract : Recently many researchers have focused substantial efforts on understanding the cutting process in mechanics, capability and design. Advances in machine performance with research towards high performance cutting (HPC) and high speed cutting (HSC) have led to improved tool properties and application of advanced materials. Because of that, primary processing time has been successfully reduced, which leads to the need for re-focusing on reduction of secondary processing time. Minimizing the time for workpiece and tool changing, re-positioning, workpiece handling, and tool handling systems shift attention towards improvement of these systems which are currently installed in various metal cutting machine tools. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of the technological effectiveness of workpiece and tool handling systems for metal cutting machine tools, gives an overview of the state of the art of these systems, surveys recent developments and elaborates requirements for future systems.


Agent-Based Systems for Manufacturing
L. Monostori (1), J. Vancza (2), S.R.T. Kumara (1)  
STC O,  55/2/2006,  P.697
Keywords: Agent, Multi-agent systems, Manufacturing
Abstract : The emerging paradigm of agent-based computation has revolutionized the building of intelligent and de-centralized systems. The new technologies met well the requirements in all domains of manufacturing where problems of uncertainty and temporal dynamics, information sharing and distributed operation, or co-ordination and cooperation of autonomous entities had to be tackled. In the paper software agents and multi-agent systems are introduced and through a comprehensive survey, their potential manufacturing applications are outlined. Special emphasis is laid on methodological issues and deployed industrial systems. After discussing open issues and strategic research directions, we conclude that the evolution of agent technologies and manufacturing will probably proceed hand in hand. The former can receive real challenges from the latter, which, in turn, will have more and more benefits in applying agent technologies, presumably together with well-established or emerging approaches of other disciplines.


Dimensional Micro and Nano Metrology
H.N. Hansen (2), K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema (2), L. De Chiffre (1)  
STC P,  55/2/2006,  P.721
Keywords: Dimensional metrology, Micro technology, Nano technology
Abstract : The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available instrumentation. Traceability and calibration issues are discussed subsequently. Finally needs and gaps are identified based on these observations.


Advances in Scanning Force Microscopy for Dimensional Metrology
H.-U. Danzebrink, L. Koenders, G. Wilkening, A. Yacoot, H. Kunzmann (1)  
STC S,  55/2/2006,  P.841
Keywords: canning probe microscope, Dimensional, Metrology
Abstract : This paper presents the state of the art in scanning force microscopy for dimensional metrology. A detaileddescription is given of the important factors affecting the major components of a scanning force microscope fromthe metrological point of view. Both instrument design and calibration are discussed together with an overview ofindustrial applications. Recent achievements by national metrology institutes and others to improve calibrationprocedures, traceability, reduce measurement uncertainty, ensure consistancy of measurement and broadenthe range of applications are described.