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CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Assembly of Micro-System
H. Van Brussel (1) , J. Peirs, D. Reynaerts, A. Delchambre, G. Reinhart (2) , N. Roth (2) , M. Weck (1), E. Zussman (2)  
STC A,  49/2/2000,  P.451
Keywords: Assembly systems, Miniaturisation, Micro-electromechanical systems
Abstract : In the microworld, as well as in the macroworld, assembly is a crucial operation in the genesis of a product. This keynote paper focusses on the assembly problems occurring in the manufacturing cycle of microsystems. Scaling effects make that the assembly problems are different in the microworld. The different assembly operations and techniques, like manipulation by physical contact, non-contact manipulation, smart assembly techniques, and joining methods are thoroughly discussed. Finally, some relevant examples of micro-assembly systems and of assembled microproducts are given.


Cutting of hardened steel
H.K. Toenshoff (1) , C. Arendt, R. Ben Amor  
STC C,  49/2/2000,  P.547
Keywords: Hard cutting, chip removal, machine, cutting tool, quality of work
Abstract : Cutting of hardened steel is a topic of high interest for today's industrial production and scientific research. Machine parts consisting of hardened steel are high performance components which are often loaded near their physical limits. The functional behavior of machined parts is decisively influenced by the fine finishing process which represents the last step in the process chain and can as well be undertaken by cutting as grinding. An overview of the mechanisms of chip removal in hard cutting and the thermo255mechanical influence of the work area is presented. Furthermore, several models of chip removal in hard turning are introduced and discussed summarizing the metallurgical fundamentals and giving an overview on stress and temperature distributions in the work area. Boundary conditions for hard cutting as e.g. machine tools, cutting materials and others are subject to discussion to determine the achievable workpiece quality and economic efficiency of hard cutting processes in comparison with grinding.


State-of-the-art on Micromachining
T. Masuzawa (1)  
STC E,  49/2/2000,  P.473
Keywords: Micro-machining, Micro-technology, Micro-product
Abstract : Miniaturization is proceeding in various types of industrial products. Micromachining is the foundation of the technology to realize such miniaturized products. In this paper, the author summarizes the basic concepts and applications of major methods of micromachining. The basic characteristics of each group of methods are discussed based on different machining phenomena. Promising methods are introduced in detail hinting at suitable areas of application. Finally, the present state of these technologies is shown with examples of experimental and practical applications.


Tribology in metal rolling
J. Lenard (1)  
STC F,  49/2/2000,  P.567
Keywords: tribology, rolling, steel, aluminium
Abstract : The techniques of bulk metal forming and especially flat rolling are reasonably well known. Productivity and quality improvements are possible by introducing responsive control systems in addition to paying detailed attention to the events at the surface of contact between the rolled metal and the forming die - the work roll. The transfer of thermal and mechanical energy is accomplished at that contact. Examination of the phenomena there form the field of tribology, the study of contacting surfaces in relative motion. The significant components of tribology in the rolling process are reviewed in the keynote presentation. Friction, lubrication and heat transfer are considered. Novel approaches to understanding the tribological mechanisms and fields for further study are discussed.


Collaborative research in CIRP and the STC-G experience
F. Klocke (1), A. Baus, T. Merbecks  
STC G,  49/2/2000,  P.489
Keywords: Co-operative, Research, Grinding
Abstract : Production engineering is typified by constant change. Solutions for complex problems must be devised at an ever faster pace. National frontiers are falling, and the ability to act globally is becoming a vital factor. Inter255disciplinary co-operation in international teams is the motto of the day. All these factors present a new chal255lenge to production engineering. Collaborative Research is a response to that challenge. CIRP, as the global platform for production engineering research, looks back on a long tradition of successful collaborative re255search. The present paper presents experience and results from joint research in the STC-G (Abrasive Proc255esses) on the "Characterisation of vitrified bonded CBN grinding wheels". It also outlines the results of a sur255vey in which CIRP members report their experience in collaborative work within CIRP, and suggest future forms which CIRP collaborative research might take.


Tooling structure - Interface between cutting edge and machine tool
E. Rivin (1)  
STC M,  49/2/2000,  P.591
Keywords: tooling, stiffness, damping
Abstract : With a significant progress achieved both in new cutting materials and in machine tool design, the weakest link in the machining system is, in many cases, the tooling structure serving as an interface between the cutting insert and the machine tool. Inadequacy of the tooling structure results in excessive static deflections limiting the achievable accuracy, and in forced and self-excited vibrations limiting the cutting regimes and surface finish of the machined surface. In order to advance the tooling structures' technology, it is important to assess the state of the art, keeping in mind that the majority of publications on the subject is not in English. This paper provides a world255wide analytical survey on six important subjects related to tooling structures: 1) Influence of machining system parameters on tool life and process stability; 2) Stiffness and damping of tools; 3) Tool/toolholder interfaces (tool clamping devices); 4) Modular tooling; 5) Tool-machine interfaces; 6) Tool balancing for high speed machine tools.


Life Cycle management and assessment: approaches and visions towards sustainable Manufacturing
E. Westkaemper (1) , L. Alting (1), G. Arndt (1)  
STC O,  49/2/2000,  P.501
Keywords: sustainable industrial production, economy and ecology, assessment
Abstract : Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today: efforts to increase efficiency throughout the life cycle do not only lead to an extended responsibility of the concerned parties. As a result, economically successful business areas can be explored. Whether new service concepts are required, new regulations have been passed or consumers values are changing, the differences between business areas are disappearing. "Life Cycle Management" (LCM) considers the product life cycle as a whole and optimizes the interaction of product design, manufacturing and life cycle activities. The goal of this approach is to protect resources and maximize the effectiveness during usage by means of Life Cycle Assessment, Product Data Management, Technical Support and last but not least by Life Cycle Costing. This paper shows the existing approaches of LCM and discusses their visions and further development.


Nanotechnology: international developments and emerging products
J. Corbett (2) , P A. McKeown (1), G.N. Peggs (1) , R. Whatmore  
STC P,  49/2/2000,  P.523
Keywords: Nanotechnology, miniaturisation, microengineering, precision engineering
Abstract : Nanotechnology is becoming vitally important in many industrial fields, offering significant wealth creating opportunities and massive improvements to standards of living. This paper describes the current state-of-the255art, emphasises its multi-disciplinary nature and conveys the enormous impact that nanotechnology will progressively make on materials, product and process research and thence on to manufacturing technologies, industry and the economies of countries throughout the world.


Quantitative characterisation of surface texture
L. De Chiffre (1) , P. Lonardo (1) , H. Trumpold (1) , D.A. Lucca (1) , G. Goch (2) , C.A. Brown (2), J. Raja, H.N. Hansen  
STC S,  49/2/2000,  P.635
Keywords: metrology, surface roughness, function
Abstract : This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters and quantification methods in terms of functional correlations, and it addresses the need for reducing the large number of existing parameters. The review considers the present situation and gives suggestions for future activities.