CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Integrated development of Assembly and Disassembly
E. Westkaemper (1) , K. Feldmann (1) , G. Reinhart (2) , G. Seliger (2)  
STC A,  48/2/1999,  P.557
Keywords: assembly, disassembly, recycling
Abstract : Manufacturers are becoming responsible for the complete life cycle of products. As a consequence they have to industrialize the after sales operations and the deproduction of products at the end of their lives. Industrial disassembly is a successful business of many companies but the main focus is the recycling of materials. Higher added value can be reached by industrialization of disassembly for remanufacturing. To activate the value of used components, new technologies for remanufacturing and analysis are necessary. This include disassembly for repair and reuse of parts and components. One main aspect of this paper is the integration of assembly and disassembly. Objectives, requirements and technical solutions for flexible or hybrid systems and aspects of planing and quality are discussed. The paper gives some perspectives to future research in the field of remanufacturing.


Coated tools for metal cutting: features and applications
F. Klocke (1) , T. Krieg  
STC C,  48/2/1999,  P.515
Keywords: Machining, Tool Coating, Tribology
Abstract : Demands on products and production processes are the driving factors behind developments in today's cut255ting technologies. Innovations such as the application of advanced work material concepts, together with needs for non-pollutant machining processes, increased flexibility and improved cost-effectiveness trigger the application of high performance processes, imposing higher stresses on tools. This often reveals inade255quate wear resistance in conventional tool materials. Coating technology is one means of achieving a crucial enhancement in tool performance. However, there is such a huge variety of available coating materials, coating structures and coating processes that careful selection of a suitable coating system is essential. Us255ing accessible know-how concerning coated cutting tools and their behaviour in a wide range of different machining tasks, the paper shows methods to test, evaluate and influence the properties of tool coatings. Applying this know-how may contribute to improving the systematic selection and development of coatings for specialised cutting operations.

 STC Dn 

Virtual and Augmented Reality Technologies for Product Realization
S.C.-Y. Lu (2) , M. Shpitalni (1) , R. Bar-Or, R. Gadh  
STC Dn,  48/2/1999,  P.471
Keywords: Design and Manufacturing, Product development and realization, Virtual and augmented realities
Abstract : Our society expects engineers to develop products that are affordable, functional and sustainable. Effective product realization methods and tools are the answers to these societal expectations. In this paper, a new type of CAE tools, called virtual and augmented reality technologies, is introduced, reviewed and examined to reveal their great potentials in product realization. Specific areas where these emerging technologies can make a big difference are highlighted to illustrate the possible new paradigms of product realization. Subjects that require continuing R&D efforts to mature the technologies for real-world engineering applications are also identified. Both product development engineers and virtual reality researchers should find this paper valuable to guide their efforts in developing a common road map for joint explorations. It is anticipated that the results from these joint explorations will enable engineers to deliver new products to the society across the time, space and other boundaries with high efficiency and great ease in the future.


New Developments in Electro-Chemical Machining
K.P Rajurkar (2) , D. Zhu, J.A. McGeough (1) , J. Kozak, A. De Silva  
STC E,  48/2/1999,  P.567
Keywords: Electro-chemical machining, Research, Development
Abstract : Electrochemical machining (ECM) has traditionally been used in highly specialized fields such as those of the aerospace and defense industries. It is now increasingly being applied in other industries where parts with difficult-to-cut materials and complex geometry are required. In this paper the latest advances are discussed, and the principal issues in ECM development and related research are raised. Developments in tool design, pulse current, micro-shaping, finishing, numerically controlled, environmental concerns, hybrid processes, and recent industrial applications, are covered.


Metal Forming of Tubes and Sheets with Liquid and other flexible Media
D. Schmoeckel (1), M. Geiger (1), C. Hielscher, R. Huber  
STC F,  48/2/1999,  P.497
Keywords: hydroforming, internal high pressure forming, lightweight construction
Abstract : Due to the increasing pollution of our environment, the legal demands are getting stricter. Especially the automobile industry needs new production methods for cars with reduced pollutants without a significant cost increase. To solve this problem, the car producers started to design cars with integrated lightweight structures, in order to reduce the total weight of the cars. This weight reduction can be realized by using new materials, new manufacturing methods or the modification of well-known manufacturing methods. The metal forming with flexible media is one of these new technologies. Especially the section of metal forming with liquids, also called hydroforming, has gained an important position among the traditional manufacturing methods. This keynote paper provides an overview of this technology and shows the recent developments especially for the internal high pressure forming, which is a subgroup of hydroforming.


Friction, Cooling and Lubrication in Grinding
E. Brinksmeier (1) , C. Heinzel, M. Wittmann  
STC G,  48/2/1999,  P.581
Keywords: Grinding, Coolant, Lubrication
Abstract : It is generally considered that the heat produced during the grinding process is critical in terms of workpiece quality. Relatively high friction effects in abrasive machining cause heat generation which can lead to thermal damage in the surface layer of a machined part; cooling and lubrication therefore play a decisive role during grinding. The keynote paper shows the effect of coolant type, coolant composition and coolant supply on grinding processes and process results. Further investigations in the fields of fluid dynamic processes in supply nozzles and in the grinding zone are the key to optimization of cooling and lubrication during grinding, thus offering the chance to minimize the amount of coolant in circulation, leading to a reduction of adverse environmental effects and cost.


Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
Y. Koren (1), U. Heisel (2), F. Jovane (1), T. Moriwaki (1), G. Pritschow (1), G. Ulsoy (2), H. Van Brussel (1)  
STC M,  48/2/1999,  P.527
Keywords: Reconfiguration, Manufacturing system, Machine tools
Abstract : Manufacturing companies in the 21 st Century will face unpredictable, high-frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must possess new types of manufacturing systems that are cost-effective and very responsive to all these market changes. Reconfigurability, an engineering tech255nology that deals with cost-effective, quick reaction to market changes, is needed. Reconfigurable manufactur255ing systems (RMS), whose components are reconfigurable machines and reconfigurable controllers, as well as methodologies for their systematic design and rapid ramp-up, are the cornerstones of this new manufacturing paradigm.


Teams -What's next From fragmentation and Consciousness to Responsiveness by Competence Management for Modular Manufacturing Learning
A. Kjellberg (2)  
STC O,  48/2/1999,  P.599
Keywords: Management, Human Factor, Cooperative Work (Teams, Competence, Learning, Organization)
Abstract : Competence Management Strategies in combination with Learning Principles and Modular Manufacturing Principles will constitute a solid base for the future structuring of teams, Top Performance Teams. This base is here called the Modular Manufacturing Learning principle. Competence Management for the handling of company specific Professional, Business and Social competence will be required but this will not be enough. Three Critical Company Capabilities - commitment, shared mindsets and innovation - are expected to be demanded, to become the company core Excellence Competence. This can be expressed as the employee handling of the 'why-what-how' for development of Holistic understanding, Consciousness and Responsiveness. Furthermore, development and sharing of the company core Excellence Values is vital for the new atmosphere and culture, all part of a paradigm shift; a deepened focus on premises for team Learning and Competence development. In addition to this a new sort of team is likely to develop, Teams of Excellence. These teams, unique in time and set-up, are expected to be the excellent problem solvers, to further enhance and add to the team innovative work in specific. They will be organized in a complementary, cell-like, 'added structure', an additional type of teams. Team competence to fulfil business needs - to be able to act on changes in customer requirements, of markets, of strategies, etc. - increase company values and secure company survival, will be pressed for. Thus, also Excellence Specialists - having personally designed roles, combined with personal job assignments - are expected to be needed in order to further support the teams in developing innovative competence, team competence as well as individual competence, enhanced to excellence.


Measurement as Inference: Fundamental Ideas
W.T. Estler (2)  
STC P,  48/2/1999,  P.611
Keywords: dimensional metrology, measurement uncertainty, information
Abstract : We review the logical basis of inference as distinct from deduction, and show that measurements in general, and dimensional metrology in particular, are best viewed as exercises in probable inference: reasoning from incomplete information. The result of a measurement is a probability distribution that provides an unambiguous encoding of one's state of knowledge about the measured quantity. Such states of knowledge provide the basis for rational decisions in the face of uncertainty. We show how simple requirements for rationality, consistency, and accord with common sense lead to a set of unique rules for combining probabilities and thus to an algebra of inference. Methods of assigning probabilities and application to measurement, calibration, and industrial inspection are discussed.


"Structured", "textured" or "engineered" surfaces
C. Evans (2), J. Bryan (1)  
STC S,  48/2/1999,  P.541
Keywords: surface metrology, manufacturing, structured surfaces, micro-optics
Abstract : Fine scale, periodic structures offer designers additional freedom to create novel functions or combinations of functions. This emerging field of "structured" surfaces is poorly defined. This paper attempts to define "structured" surfaces, and then to provide examples of such surfaces for a variety of applications. Manufacturing and metrology are also discussed.