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CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Dry cutting
F. Klocke (2), G. Eisenblaetter  
STC C,  46/2/1997,  P.519
Keywords: Machining, dry cutting, environmental impact
Abstract : The vast majority of machining operations exploit the good cooling and lubricating characteristics of cooling lubricants (CL). But, as costs for waste disposal increase, companies are now being forced to implement strategies in order to reduce the amount of CL used in their production lines. The most logical measure which can be taken to eliminate all of the problems associated with the use of CL is dry machining. In most cases, however, a machining operation without lubricant finds acceptance only when it is possible to guar255antee that the part quality and machining times achieved in wet machining are equaled or surpassed. The introduction of dry machining techniques may also include the use of minimal quantities of lubricant (MQL). The following paper deals with the most recent developments in dry cutting.

 STC Dn 

Issues in styling and engineering design
F. Kimura (1)  
STC Dn,  46/2/1997,  P.527
Keywords: *Styling Design, Engineering Design, Computer Aided Design
Abstract : The aim of this paper is to review the present development of styling design activities in product design processes, and to identify new roles and technology of styling design to cope with emerging market and environmental requirements in our society. The focus of the paper is to analyze the interplay between styling and engineering design. The importance of product aesthetics is investigated in comparison with ergonomic and technological factors, and many example products are analyzed, such as automobiles, electro255mechanical products, etc. Computer aided tools for styling design are reviewed, and future issues are identified for enabling high-quality styling design and tight integration with engineering activities.


Three-dimensional micromachining by machine tools
T. Masuzawa (1), H.K. Toenshoff (1)  
STC E,  46/2/1997,  P.621
Keywords: micromachining, machine tool, microproduct
Abstract : Machining technologies for three-dimensional microproducts are summarized by focusing on the methods using tools. After a discussion on the problems and the basic strategy concerning micromachining, promising methods for machining convex and concave shapes are introduced and discussed with respect to their state of the art. The methods introduced include WEDG, EDM, grinding, cutting, WECG, MEDM, microdrilling, micromilling, MUSM, micropunching, MLBM, electrolyte jet ECM, micro electroforming and micro injection molding.


Development and manufacture of dies for car body production
K. Siegert (2),T. Altan (1),T. Nakagawa (1)  
STC F,  46/2/1997,  P.535
Keywords: Deep Drawing, Cushion System, Binder Design
Abstract : The costs for development and production of draw dies for car outer panels are extremely high and should be reduced. Furthermore it is necessary to reduce the time for developing, designing and producing the dies for the production of parts. This paper discussed new press techniques, die designs and milling techniques. The trend goes to single acting presses with CNC-controlled multipoint cushion systems in the press table and to special designed dies. These systems lead to a more robust and reproducible forming process with improved product quality


Technological advances in fine abrasive processes
R. Komanduri (1), D.A. Lucca (2), Y. Tani (2)  
STC G,  46/2/1997,  P.545
Keywords: grinding, polishing, finishing, abrasives, ceramics, glass, silicon
Abstract : Fine abrasives, be they loose or fixed, are invariably used in the production of components of the highest quality in terms of form and finish accuracy, and surface integrity. While optical, mechanical, and electronic applications of advanced ceramics, glasses, and semiconductors may require high form and finish accuracies (e.g., roughnesses in the angstrom range), the depth and nature of the subsurface damage resultant from processing may be equally important. For economic manufacture and for improved reliability of brittle materials, an understanding of the mechanisms of material removal in fine abrasive processes, as well as the nature of damage imparted, are essential prerequisites. Knowledge of the removal mechanisms and nature of damage can enable process improvement and minimize, if not altogether eliminate, surface and subsurface damage. This paper focuses on fine abrasive processes with emphasis on material removal in brittle workmaterials. Generally, indentation models are used to simulate abrasion and polishing. An attempt is made to rationalize various models by linking conventional machining, grinding, ultraprecision machining, and indentation sliding as a cognate transition for material removal operations. Whereas chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has become the process of choice for finishing semiconductors, the various models developed thus far, although very significant, have addressed isolated aspects of the process and/or neglected certain issues. To use analytical models as predictive tools for finishing of brittle materials, it is necessary to integrate existing understanding into a comprehensive model of the process. This paper reports on some significant technological advances in fine abrasive processes which have been made.


Intelligent computing methods for manufacturing systems
R. Teti (2), S.R.T. Kumara (1)  
STC O,  46/2/1997,  P.629
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Manufacturing systems
Abstract : Intelligent computation is taken to include the development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods i.e. tools that exhibit characteristics associated with intelligence in human behaviour. Many approaches have been proposed to apply At methods, techniques and paradigms to the solution of manufacturing problems. This paper discusses current trends in applications of intelligent computing tools to manufacturing and reviews the motivation and basis for the utilisation of these systems. The topics of the paper were confined to four main issues of manufacturing systems: design, planning, production and system level activities. A discussion about intelligent manufacturing systems from these four basic functional view points was introduced, the relevant intelligent computing methods and their use in manufacturing were surveyed, and a number of significant research issues and applications were illustrated. The main developments that were observed comprise the integration of At methods into CAD, CAPP, etc.; the improvement of the performance of present At techniques; the development of hybrid At systems; the elaboration and application of new Al paradigms in manufacturing. Intelligent systems in the future are expected to be integrated, modular, and hybrid in nature, and they may well include all the techniques described in this paper and further more.


Industrial uses of STM and AFM
T.V. Vorburger, J.A. Dagata, G. Wilkening, K. Iizuka  
STC P,  46/2/1997,  P.597
Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Scanning probe microscopy (SPM)
Abstract : We review the field of STM and AFM as applied to industrial problems, and we classify the applications into four classes: research with potential benefit to industry, research performed by industry, applications off-line in manufacturing, and applications on-line in manufacturing. We also discuss the role of metrology for certain applications and briefly review many other types of SPMs besides STM and AFM. We conclude by emphasizing ultra-precision positioning, nanofabrication, and biomedical applications as important future directions in the field.