CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) - The status of Research and Industrial Applications
G. Byrne (2), D. Dornfeld (2), I. Inasaki (1), G. Ketteler, W. König (1), R. Teti (2)  
STC C,  44/2/1995,  P.541
Keywords: Tool Monitoring, Sensor, Signal Processing, Machining, Grinding, Reliatibility, Industrial Application
Abstract : The use of sensor systems for tool condition monitoring in machining and grinding is becoming more commonplace to enhance productivity. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish tool condition monitoring and a number of these are successfully employed in industry. This paper reviews the motivation and basis for the utilization of these systems in industry, the sensors used in such systems including industrial application, new developments in signal and information processing, sensor based process optimization and control and directions for future developments. Main developments noted include the use of multiple sensors in systems for increased reliability, the development of intelligent sensors with improved signal processing and decision-making capability and the implementation of sensor systems in open architecture controllers for machine tool control.

 STC Dn 

Life Cycle Engineering and Design
L. Alting (1), J. Brobech Legarth  
STC Dn,  44/2/1995,  P.569
Keywords: Environment, Product Design, Disassembling
Abstract : This paper addresses the state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering/design. Actions taken by industry are discussed followed by a focus on life cycle design strategies, with special emphasis on design for low energy consumption in the use phase and design for disassembly. Life cycle design tools and methods and tools for design for recycling are further discussed generally with an overview of the tools most used by life cycle engineers. Finally, the implementation of life cycle design systems in industry's product development schemes is discussed.


Towards Clean Forming Techniques
M. Geiger (1)  
STC F,  44/2/1995,  P.581
Keywords: Forming, Environment, Assessment
Abstract : Today's metal forming techniques can not be considered to be clean yet. On the one hand, metal forming industry produces - besides the piece desired - several residues and emissions which are more or less harmful and have to be handled. On the other hand, forming processes consume valuable energy and resources. Both aspects are well-known and adequate strategies towards clean forming are presented in this paper, e.g. the reduction and substitution of current lubricants. The fundamental problem, however, is the question how to assess and compare the overall cleanness of alternative processes and agents.


Reduction and Compensation of Thermal Errors in Machine Tools
M. Weck (1), P.A. McKeown (1), R. Bonse, U. Herbst and al  
STC M,  44/2/1995,  P.589
Keywords: Accuracy, Thermal Stress, Optimisation, Compensation
Abstract : The main reasons for dimensional and geometric errors in workpieces produced on machine tools include low static stiffness of the machine structure, low dynamic performance of feed drives, tool wear and thermal deformations of the tool, machine and workpiece. This paper describes the latest research in analyzing and reduction of thermally induced deformations in machine tools which lead to thermal drift displacements be255tween tool and workpiece. A brief introduction to the problem is followed by an analysis of different heat sources and how they deformations. Attention is drawn to measures for reducing thermal drift as a mayor cause of errors in machine tools.


Geometric Error Measurement and Compensation of Machines
S. Sartori (1), G.X. Zhang (1)  
STC P,  44/2/1995,  P.599
Keywords: Machine, Geometric Modelling, Compensation
Abstract : Methods for geometric error measurement are classified in direct and self-calibration, according to the use of calibrated or uncalibrated standard and to the strategy for the generation of information about errors. A vectorial equation for geometric error description is presented, which is independent from the machine structure. The evaluation of measurement effectiveness is discussed and error compensation methods and strategies are examined. The reasons why software compensation techniques are applied at production level to CMM and not to machine tools are discussed. Some topics for implementation are proposed.


Observations on Polishing and Ultra-Precision Machining of Semiconductor Substrate Materials
V.C. Venkatesh (1), I. Inasaki (1), H.K. Toenshoff (1), T. Nakagawa (1), I.D. Marinescu  
STC S,  44/2/1995,  P.611
Keywords: Chemical-Mechanical Polishing, Ultra-Precision Grinding, Semi-Conductor Materials
Abstract : Among the polishing techniques used for semi-conductor materials that are hard and brittle (Si), chemical-mechanical polishing (CM P) has many advantages and a few serious disadvantages too. For materials that are soft and brittle like GaAs, GaP, and InP, which have a very promising future, the CMP technique is now possible without the use of toxic agents. The elimination of the polishing process altogether, or a substantial reduction in polishing time is another strategy that has been successfully established by the use of electrolytic in-process dressing techniques (ELID). At the same time there are applications where profile requirements are not stringent like inexpensive night vision. lenses, where partial ductile grinding and simple mechanical polishing are highly economical. Finally a simulated model for ultra precision grinding is presented here.