CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Appropriate Human Involvement in Assembly and Disassembly
H. Bley (2), G. Reinhart (2), G. Seliger (2), M. Bernardi, T. Korne  
STC A,  53/2/2004,  P.487
Keywords: Assembly, Disassembly, Human factors
Abstract : Product assembly as well as disassembly is often carried out by workers who have been trained and are flexible with respect to the different variants, delivery dates and changing lot sizes. Though there has been a strong tendency to mechanize and automate production during the last years many operations in assembly and disassembly are still very often performed manually. Furthermore there might be an increase in manually operated assembly or disassembly as a result of product equipment investments with shorter usage time. This keynote paper deals with the state of practice as well as the tendencies in product and production technology and the influence of markets. Another question is going to be the use of information technology on the shop floor level and between the shop floor and other levels within a company as well as the customers. Therefore industrial engineering is increasingly dealing with the influence of organization and structuring of production processes.


Dry Machining and Minimum Quantity Lubrication
K. Weinert (1), I. Inasaki (1), J.W. Sutherland (2), T. Wakabayashi  
STC C,  53/2/2004,  P.511
Keywords: Machining, Environment, Minimum Quantity Lubrication
Abstract : Modern machining processes face continuous cost pressures and high quality expectations. To remain competitive a company must continually identify cost reduction opportunities in production, exploit economic opportunities, and continuously improve production processes. A key technology that represents cost saving opportunities related to cooling lubrication, and simultaneously improves the overall performance of cutting operations, is dry machining. The elimination of, or significant reduction in, cooling lubricants affects all components of a production system. A detailed analysis and adaptation of cutting parameters, cutting tools, machine tools and the production environment is mandatory to ensure an efficient process and successfully enable dry machining.

 STC Dn 

Adaptable Design
P. Gu (2), M. Hashemian, A.Y.C. Nee (1)  
STC Dn,  53/2/2004,  P.539
Keywords: Product Design, Adaptable Design, Life Cycle Design
Abstract : Increasing competition for better product functionality, quality, features, customization, environmental friendliness, lower cost and shorter delivery time presents unprecedented challenges for product manufacturing enterprises. These challenges cannot be completely addressed by advanced manufacturing technologies alone as some of which are originated from product design. Advanced design technologies and tools for early product design processes are critically needed where most important decisions are made with respect to the product functionality, quality, manufacturability, cost and environmental performance. This paper discusses adaptable design (AD) as a design paradigm for both business success and environmental protection. Adaptable design aims at developing products that are adaptable in their design and/or their production. Adaptability is defined as the extension of the utility (service) of products. Two types of adaptabilities are proposed as product adaptability and design adaptability. Two types of design adaptations are also identified, which include foreseeable specific adaptations and unforeseeable general adaptations. The former can be described by specific adaptability and the latter by general adaptability. Three key elements of AD are presented including functions independence, a measure of adaptability and a function based design process model of the AD. Based on these concepts and design objectives, adaptable design methods and general design guidelines are proposed. Examples are included to illustrate the concepts, design methods and guidelines.


Photochemical Machining: from "manufacturing's best kept secret" to a $6 billion per annum, rapid manufacturing process
D.M. Allen (2)  
STC E,  53/2/2004,  P.559
Keywords: Photochemical machining technology, Products, Economics
Abstract : Photochemical machining (PCM) is one of the least well-known non-conventional machining processes. It employs chemical etching through a photoresist stencil as the method of material removal over selected areas. The technique is relatively modern and became established as a manufacturing process about fifty years ago. The processing technology has been kept a closely-guarded secret within a small number of industrial companies but despite this, the sales of parts made by PCM at the end of the twentieth century was approximately US$ 6 billion. This paper examines the state of the art of PCM, the PCM Roadmap and the newly-developed products made by PCM especially relevant to Microengineering, Microfluidics and Microsystems Technology, economic aspects and current challenges requiring research within the PCM industry.


Testing and Modelling of Material Response to Deformation in Bulk Metal Forming
P.F. Bariani (1), T. Dal Negro (2), S. Bruschi  
STC F,  53/2/2004,  P.573
Keywords: Metal forming, Testing, Modelling
Abstract : As the virtual prototyping of forming operations and systems becomes a real prospect for industries, reliable and versatile simulation software must be created to efficiently and accurately predict the events products and processes are subjected to. Useful and efficient models and tests able to evaluate the different aspects of the material response to plastic deformation are among the most critical prerequisites. The knowledge of how the material performs during and after deformation has, in fact, a great impact on product design and manufacturing decisions. This paper attempts to critically assess the modelling and testing approaches and techniques for predicting material response that are available today and then to discuss the latest developments in research labs and industrial applications in the fields of modelling and testing. The emphasis is on what is changing and must still change in order to provide industrial process designers with more useful models and efficient tests that can meet the increasing demand for accurate processes and product simulation.


Innovations in Abrasive Products for Precision Grinding
J. Webster (1), M. Tricard (3)  
STC G,  53/2/2004,  P.597
Keywords: Grinding, Abrasives, Machine
Abstract : This paper is a review of recent developments in the design and manufacture of precision, fixed-abrasive tools. The role of each component within the "engineered composite" is also discussed, with examples showing how the components have been enhanced to achieve their current high levels of performance. The paper also looks at examples where innovations in the abrasive tool have enabled the development of innovative abrasive processes. A vision of future abrasive product developments is also presented by the authors.


Chatter Stability of Metal Cutting and Grinding
Y. Altintas (1), M. Weck (1)  
STC M,  53/2/2004,  P.619
Keywords: Cutting, Grinding, Chatter
Abstract : This paper reviews fundamental modeling of chatter vibrations in metal cutting and grinding processes. The avoidance of chatter vibrations in industry is also presented. The fundamentals of orthogonal chatter stability law and lobes are reviewed for single point machining operations where the process is one dimensional and time invariant. The application of orthogonal stability to turning and boring operations is presented while discussing the process nonlinearities that make the solution difficult in frequency domain. Modeling of drilling vibrations is discussed. The dynamic modeling and chatter stability of milling is presented. Various stability models are compared against experimentally validated time domain simulation model results. The dynamic time domain model of transverse and plunge grinding operations is presented with experimental results. Off-line and real-time chatter suppression techniques are summarized along with their practical applications and limitations in industry. The paper presents a series of research topics, which have yet to be studied for effective use of chatter prediction and suppression techniques in industry.


Maintenance: Changing Role in Life Cycle Management
S. Takata (1), F. Kimura (1), F.J.A.M. van Houten (1), E. Westkaemper (1), M. Shpitalni (1), D. Cegarek (2), J. Lee  
STC O,  53/2/2004,  P.643
Keywords: Maintenance, Life Cycle Management
Abstract : As attention to environmental problems grows, product life cycle management is becoming a crucial issue in realizing a sustainable society. Our objective is to provide the functions necessary for such a society while minimizing material and energy consumption. From this viewpoint, we should redefine the role of maintenance as a prime method for life cycle management. In this paper, we first discuss the changing role of maintenance from the perspective of life cycle management. Then, we present a maintenance framework that shows management cycles of maintenance activities during the product life cycle. According to this framework, we identify technical issues of maintenance and discuss the advances of technologies supporting the change in the role of maintenance.


Probing Systems in Dimensional Metrology
A. Weckenmann (2), T. Estler (2), G. Peggs (1), D. McMurtry (3)  
STC P,  53/2/2004,  P.657
Keywords: Dimensional Metrology, Probe, Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
Abstract : Dimensional parameters are the most commonly encountered quality characteristics of workpieces. The measuring process for testing conformance of those characteristics contains the important sub-process of probing the surface. A huge variety of probing systems for performing different measurement tasks on the shop floor, as well as in the metrological environment, have been developed. In coordinate measuring machines (CMM) probing systems must ensure reproducibility of the sensing operation even in the sub-micrometer range. This paper describes requirements, different principles and characteristics of tactile probing systems in dimensional metrology, with examples of several probing systems that are used in practice.


Chemical Aspects of Machining Processes
E. Brinksmeier (1), D. A. Lucca (1), A. Walter  
STC S,  53/2/2004,  P.685
Keywords: Surface, Machining, Reaction layer
Abstract : Machining processes used to create surfaces are influenced by the mechanical, thermal, and chemical loading in the contact zone. In addition, the tribo-physical and tribo-chemical interactions between the cutting tool, workpiece, metalworking fluid and surrounding medium have an influence on the properties of the resulting surface. In order to design efficient machining processes and control the chemical state of the surface produced, a basic understanding of the chemical mechanisms in the contact zone is needed. The chemical effects of metalworking fluids on the processes of machining and grinding are discussed, including the chemical interactions which occur between the various participating surfaces. The impact of the resulting chemical state of the surface produced is addressed.