CIRP Annals Online sorted by Year and Volume




Modeling and Simulation of Assembly Systems
H.P. Wiendahl (1), R. Garlichs, K. Zeugtraeger  
STC A,  40/2/1991,  P.577
Keywords: Assembly Ststems, Modeling, Simulation, Objectives
Abstract : The development and use of simulation tools in the field of assembly planning is growing over the last years. The following paper presents the results of these efforts and is an overview of the state of the art in modeling and simulation of assembly systems. According to the different objectives of the different efforts in simulation the developed tools are divided into the four hierarchy classes assembly shop, cell, station and component. For every level the considered goals and the used models will be explained. Furthermore the realization of assembly systems and the results of these systems will be discussed.


Ultraprecision Metal Cutting, the Past, the Present and the Future
N. Ikawa (1), R.R. Donaldson (1), R. Komanduri (1), W. Koenig (1), P.A. McKeown (1), T. Moriwaki (2), I.F. Stowers  
STC C,  40/2/1991,  P.587
Keywords: Metal Cutting, Ultraprecision Machining
Abstract : A review is made of ultraprecision metal cutting techniques which aim at micrometer or sub255micrometer form accuracy and nanometric surface roughness in optical, electronic and mechanical components, Following an overview of the fields of application of the technique in advanced science and technology, a brief look is taken at the technical bases of machine tools, metrology and control, cutting tools and relevant technologies, Some physical aspects of the chip removal process and related phenomena involved in micro cutting are also discussed for better under255standing, controlling and improving the technique.

 STC Dn 

Engineering Design Education
J. Dinsdale (1)  
STC Dn,  40/2/1991,  P.595
Keywords: Engineering Design, Design Education
Abstract : This Keynote Paper describes some of the many current viewpoints regarding engineering design and how it should be taught, distinguishing between the different approaches to design: the analytical approaches now being developed by researchers and the practical intuitive approaches used and favoured by practising designers. The paper describes briefly the present-day thinking on design theory and design methodology, and collates proposals from a number of sources regarding the optimum way of teaching engineering design.


Material Incress Manufacturing by Rapid Prototyping Techniques
J.P. Kruth (2)  
STC E,  40/2/1991,  P.603
Keywords: Manufacturing, Material Incress Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping, CIM
Abstract : The paper gives a state-of-the-art overview: of so called rapid prototyping techniques, like stereolithography, selective laser sintering, particle manufacturing and others. These are new manufacturing techniques in which the part is produced by gradually growing material to the required shape. tentative classification and nomenclature is proposed. It is shown that those new processes are ideally suited for CIM. The paper tries to compare the different processes and discuss their application and performances.


Developments in Automation, Flexibilization and Control of Forming Machinery
D. Schmoeckel (1)  
STC F,  40/2/1991,  P.615
Keywords: Automation, Flexibility, Control
Abstract : The development of forming machinery can be represented in five steps. All of these steps reflect the respective economic re255quirements and their technical implementation. In the area of mass production, automation was in the foreground for achieving increased productivity. It was type-related and thus inflexible. In recent years, changing market conditions have strengthened the trend for flexibili255zation of the machinery, at first with the objective of improving both steps flexibility and production run flexibility. The focal point of deve255lopment was on machines for application in non-tool-related forming processes. More recent developments are aimed at improving also the process flexibility of tool-related forming techniques. Under the aspects of process and quality assurance, machines are being deve255loped which allow control and regulation of the forming process. Some examples are given to describe the state of development.


Environmental Aspects of Grinding Fluids
T.D. Howes (2), H.K. Toenshoff (1), W. Heuer  
STC G,  40/2/1991,  P.623
Keywords: Grinding, Fluid
Abstract : Internationally, environmental concerns, public opinion, and government regulation have initiated extensive controls on the use and disposal of industrial products including grinding fluids. As a result, waste disposal costs have increased as has manufacturer liability for the effect of wastes upon the environment and for the impact of manufacturing processes upon worker health. In the case of grinding fluids, these trends have resulted in an emphasis on fluid maintenance in order to minimize the amount of waste generated, to extend the life of the fluid, and to mitigate negative effects on worker health. The concept of fluid management encompasses fluid selection, maintenance of fluid concentration and emulsion stability, control of microbial levels, and removal of impurities. Upon failure, used fluids must be treated either to reduce toxicity or to render them suitable for recycling. Although techniques and equipment have been developed for fluid maintenance and waste disposal, more research is warranted accurately to determine the extent and forms of the impact of grinding fluids on the environment, given that government regulation shall become increasingly stringent and that the impact upon manufacturing processes promises to be far reaching.


Tool Management : the Present and the Future
W. Eversheim (1), H.J.J. Kals (1), W. Koenig (1), C.A. Van Luttervelt (1), J. Milberg (1), A. Storr, H.K. Toenshoff (1), M. Weck (1), H. Weule (1), W.J. Zdeblick (2)  
STC O,  40/2/1991,  P.631
Keywords: Cutting, Machine Tool, Optimization, Tool Management
Abstract : Availability of tools is of prime importance for uninterrupted production in a highly automated manufacturing environment. Even in relatively small machining shops a great variety of tools is required. Many industrial firms, suppliers of cutting tools, research organizations, industrial consultants and software houses have contributed to an optimization of tool use. These efforts were aimed at simplifying tool management. To determine the goals and areas for future research work in tool management, the authors of this contribution attempt to describe and evaluate the present situation and to point out some future trends.